News All These Icy Worlds Are Yours: The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission

Urwumpe

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So, why can't some billionaire donate a billion or ten to NASA or ESA?
Or is the intersection of space flights enthusiasts and billionaires a null set so far?
Rather, such donations would violate the ESA contracts and damage the fragile peace. Currently, countries get their contracts based on what they paid for ESA. Let somebody donate money for ESA... and you will see blood.
 

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NASA JPL:
NASA and JPL Contribute to European Jupiter Mission

February 21, 2013

NASA has selected key contributions to a 2022 European Space Agency (ESA) mission that will study Jupiter and three of its largest moons in unprecedented detail. The moons are thought to harbor vast water oceans beneath their icy surfaces.

NASA's contribution will consist of one U.S.-led science instrument and hardware for two European instruments to fly on ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission. Jeffrey Plaut of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., will be the U.S. lead for the Radar for Icy Moon Exploration experiment. The radar experiment's principal investigator is Lorenzo Bruzzone of Universita degli Studi di Trento in Italy.

Under the lead of Bruzzone and the Italian Space Agency, JPL will provide the transmitter and receiver hardware for a radar sounder designed to penetrate the icy crust of Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede and Callisto to a depth of about 5 miles (9 kilometers). This will allow scientists to see for the first time the underground structure of these tectonically complex and unique icy worlds.

JUICE will carry 11 experiments developed by scientific teams from 15 European countries, the United States and Japan.

The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter for three years and travel past Callisto and Europa multiple times, then orbit Ganymede, a moon larger than the planet Mercury. JUICE will conduct the first thorough exploration of Jupiter since NASA's Galileo mission from 1989-2003.

By studying the Jupiter system, JUICE will look to learn more about the formation and evolution of potentially habitable worlds in our solar system and beyond.

"NASA is thrilled to collaborate with ESA on this exciting mission to explore Jupiter and its icy moons," said John Grunsfeld, NASA's associate administrator for science in Washington. "Working together with ESA and our other international partners is key to enabling future scientific progress in our quest to understand the cosmos."

The solar-powered spacecraft will carry cameras and spectrometers, a laser altimeter and an ice-penetrating radar instrument. The mission also will carry a magnetometer, plasma and particle monitors, and radio science hardware. The spacecraft is scheduled to arrive at the Jupiter system in 2030.

"The selection of JUICE's instruments is a key milestone in ESA's flagship mission to the outer solar system, which represents an unprecedented opportunity to showcase leading European technological and scientific expertise," said Alvaro Gimenez Canete, ESA's director of science and robotic exploration.

NASA invited researchers in 2012 to submit proposals for NASA-provided instruments for the mission. Nine were reviewed, with one selected to fly. NASA agreed to provide critical hardware for two of the 10 selected European-led instruments. NASA's total contribution to the JUICE mission is $100 million for design, development and operation of the instruments through 2033.

In addition to the radar team and instrument, the NASA contributions are:

-- Ultraviolet Spectrometer: The principal investigator is Randy Gladstone of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. This spectrometer will acquire images to explore the surfaces and atmospheres of Jupiter's icy moons and how they interact with the Jupiter environment. The instrument also will determine how Jupiter's upper atmosphere interacts with its lower atmosphere below, and the ionosphere and magnetosphere above. The instrument will provide images of the aurora on Jupiter and Ganymede.

-- Particle Environment Package: The principal investigator is Stas Barabash of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. The U.S. lead is Pontus Brandt of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Md. Under the lead of Barabash and the Swedish National Space Board, APL will provide instruments to this suite to measure the neutral material and plasma that are accelerated and heated to extreme levels in Jupiter's fierce and complex magnetic environment.

{...}
 

Keatah

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I fear that missions are put so far into the future with the hopes that something will go wrong in the meantime - thus canceling the project.

I also fear that missions have such huge timelines in order to allow for makework and paper pushing activities - with no real intention of flying. This is very evident with the so-called moon and mars initiatives we keep hearing about.
 

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Galactic Penguin SST

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This is not about the spacecraft itself, but relevant to the mission.


Pretty.​

JPL: "Largest Solar System Moon Detailed in Geologic Map"
The article isn't long, it explains the colors, and the discoveries are thoroughly interesting, so here's the whole thing:
February 12, 2014

More than 400 years after its discovery by astronomer Galileo Galilei, the largest moon in the solar system - Jupiter's moon Ganymede - has finally claimed a spot on the map.

A group of scientists led by Geoffrey Collins of Wheaton College has produced the first global geologic map of Ganymede, Jupiter's seventh moon. The map combines the best images obtained during flybys conducted by NASA's Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft (1979) and Galileo orbiter (1995 to 2003) and is now published by the U. S. Geological Survey as a global map. It technically illustrates the varied geologic character of Ganymede's surface and is the first global, geologic map of this icy, outer-planet moon. The geologic map of Ganymede is available for download at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/details.php?id=pia17902 ).

"This map illustrates the incredible variety of geological features on Ganymede and helps to make order from the apparent chaos of its complex surface," said Robert Pappalardo of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "This map is helping planetary scientists to decipher the evolution of this icy world and will aid in upcoming spacecraft observations."

The European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer mission is slated to be orbiting Ganymede around 2032. NASA is contributing a U.S.-led instrument and hardware for two European-led instruments for the mission.

Since its discovery in January 1610, Ganymede has been the focus of repeated observation, first by Earth-based telescopes, and later by the flyby missions and spacecraft orbiting Jupiter. These studies depict a complex, icy world whose surface is characterized by the striking contrast between its two major terrain types: the dark, very old, highly cratered regions, and the lighter, somewhat younger (but still very old) regions marked with an extensive array of grooves and ridges.

According to the scientists who have constructed this map, three major geologic periods have been identified for Ganymede that involve the dominance of impact cratering, then tectonic upheaval, followed by a decline in geologic activity. The map, which illustrates surface features, such as furrows, grooves and impact craters, allows scientists to decipher distinct geologic time periods for an object in the outer solar system for the first time.

"The highly detailed, colorful map confirmed a number of outstanding scientific hypotheses regarding Ganymede's geologic history, and also disproved others," said Baerbel Lucchitta, scientist emeritus at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Ariz., who has been involved with geologic mapping of Ganymede since 1980. "For example, the more detailed Galileo images showed that cryovolcanism, or the creation of volcanoes that erupt water and ice, is very rare on Ganymede."

The Ganymede global geologic map will enable researchers to compare the geologic characters of other icy satellite moons, because almost any type of feature that is found on other icy satellites has a similar feature somewhere on Ganymede.

"The surface of Ganymede is more than half as large as all the land area on Earth, so there is a wide diversity of locations to choose from," Collins said. "Ganymede also shows features that are ancient alongside much more recently formed features, adding historical diversity in addition to geographic diversity."

Amateur astronomers can observe Ganymede (with binoculars) in the evening sky this month, as Jupiter is in opposition and easily visible.

The project was funded by NASA through its Outer Planets Research and Planetary Geology and Geophysics Programs. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managed by the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
Another source fills in some gaps. Both stories are well written.
Los Angeles Times: "Ganymede mapped: See best map yet of our solar system's largest moon"
...The dark material, rendered in browns and purples on the map above is covered with a thick layer of loose, dry, powder that could be several feet thick. The light material is brighter and newer, with less evidence of impacts. On the map above it is rendered in aqua. The yellows, reds and greens on the map represent big impact features.

"What's interesting about Ganymede is that if you stood in the right place, you could have one foot on something that is 3 billion years old, and the other on something that is 1 billion," said Wes Patterson of the John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. "There is that kind of abrupt change in the areas of the surface," added Patterson, who helped construct the map.

Scientists are still not sure why parts of Ganymede are so ancient, while others are relatively new.

"I wish we knew the answer," said Wheaton College's Geoffrey Collins, who began working on the map in 2000. "Making this map has been part of the research of trying to nail down the sequence of events on Ganymede. You can theorize all you want, but you need data to link a theory to."

[...]
 

Andy44

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I guess the idea of a nuclear-electric propelled JIMO is past tense these days....sigh....and I agree with the long timeline. That allows for several years of make-work for engineers who will work on something that they know might never fly, a la the Constellation program and the Ares rocket family. It's a Fabian strategy space agencies follow in the hopes that they can get more funding in the future to actually finish the job. Would be nice if they can actually get the committment for one good risky mission now and then. NASA managed to get Curiosity at least.

I for one would like to see detailed study of Europa and Gannymede before I'm an old man. I really don't understand why Europa doesn't have a dozen orbiters already; it's got to be one of the most interesting bodies in the Solar system.

NASA should at least pay them enough to change the name. In fact, that may be a new fundung strategy for space agencies, come up with horrible names for things unless your government ponies up more cash. "Spirit"? "Opportunity"? "Curiosity"?

Really?

"Well, congressman, if you'd pay us more we'd come up with something less lame. Apollo had lots of cash and they got Eagle and Odyssey and Intrepid."
 

Urwumpe

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If things go on like they do, we will soon have the "Coca-Cola Dark Monolith Jupiter Moon Mission".


Launched by a Boeing-SpaceX rocket from the "Apple Space Center".
 

statickid

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I don't mind sponsors paying out money for space exploration, as long as there is science being done while they take pictures of their logo at the destination
 

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The mission to the three icy and potentially habitable worlds (and don't forget the gassy planet!) is slowly sliding along.

AmericaSpace: "ESA's JUICE Mission Receives Approval To Advance Towards Implementation"
The detailed study of Jupiter’s fascinating large icy moons got a step closer with the formal adoption of the European Space Agency’s JUpiter ICy moons Explorer mission, or JUICE, by the agency’s Science Programme Committee, earlier this month. This latest development marks a major milestone for the JUICE mission, allowing it to proceed towards implementation in order to meet its scheduled launch date in 2022.

[...]

JUICE must undergo a rigorous, multi-phase development process here on Earth first. To that end, the mission recently ticked off another milestone on its long road towards the launch pad by gaining approval to advance towards implementation, during a meeting at the European Space Astronomy Centre, or ESOC, in Spain, which took place on 19 and 20 November. The start of the implementation phase clears ESA to select a prime contractor for the mission by September 2015, following an open competition, who will be responsible for the design, manufacturing, integration, testing and assembly of the spacecraft. From there on, the next major milestones in the mission’s development process are the Preliminary Design Review which is expected to take place in the first quarter of 2017 and the Critical Design Review two years later, leading to the Flight Acceptance Review which, providing that everything goes according to plan, will eventually clear the mission for launch in June 2022.

[...]
Interestingly, JUICE is planned to produce 900 watts at Jupiter with its solar arrays compared to about 450 (half) from Juno.

A graphic of icy worlds from the article, to make this post look nicer:

Titan, Triton, Eris, Pluto, Sedna, Titania, Oberon, Rhea, and Enceladus*​

*What the bottom row of icy objects appear to be, from left to right. The graphic illustrates potential ocean layers.
 
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Throughout 2015, Van Kane will describe how JUICE will explore each of its targets. He starts with the innermost moon that the spacecraft will fly by, Europa. Although JUICE will have only two flybys compared to Galileo's eleven, the Ganymede orbiter's far newer technology, combined with a working high gain antenna, may significantly improve humanity's understanding of a potentially inhabited world in the solar system.

[TABLE="width=42"]

Examples of focus regions on Europa that the JUICE spacecraft may study. Red blocks are the regional focus regions, while the most detailed observations would occur directly below the path of the spacecraft (shown as the colored arcs). From ESA's JUICE Red Book.
Description by Van Kane​
[/TABLE]​

Future Planetary Exploration: "JUICE at Europa"
[...] With just two flybys, the JUICE mission will study in detail just a portion of Europa’s surface. The mission planners have chosen to focus those flybys on areas where Galileo images revealed recent geologic activity. These are terrains where the icy shell has been broken to create regions of chaotic terrain and/or have produced Europa’s characteristic ridges. These regions also have surface materials that suggest water has been brought to the surface from the underlying ocean.

To achieve the best observing conditions for the instruments, the two flybys will occur within 15 degrees of longitude of the center of the far side of Europa from Jupiter and will bring the spacecraft as close as 400 kilometers above the surface. Of the eight possible regions of interest identified to date, seven lie on Europa’s trailing hemisphere which receives the highest radiation loads. (Because Jupiter’s magnetosphere rotates much faster than Europa travels around Jupiter, the highly charged ions that create the high radiation levels slam into the trailing hemisphere; the leading hemisphere has much lower radiation exposure.)

For the two encounters, the JUICE scientific team has identified three key goals. While the plan is to use almost all of JUICE’s instruments during the encounters, for each objective only one or a few of the instruments are expected to provide the prime measurements, while a few others will provide secondary measurements.

Goal 1: Determine the composition of the non-ice material on the surface, with a focus on substances that relate to potential habitability of the subsurface ocean.

[...]

Goal 2: Search for liquid water below the surface.

[...]

Goal 3: Study the active processes

[...]
 

BruceJohnJennerLawso

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What newer technologies are expected to be available for a newer mission?
 

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What newer technologies are expected to be available for a newer mission?
Newer instruments are less massive, require less power, and are more capable (more precise, able to see more, etc.); after all, Galileo was planned way back in the 1970s, decades before JUICE (to use an example). As a result, JUICE can do all the science Galileo has done and more. New instruments include an ice penetrating radar and a mass spectrometer. More detail about the instruments is provided in Van Kane's article, and there's a table of instruments at the end.

Hopefully that gives you an idea of what newer technology can do. I cannot predict what new technologies will be available after the current generation of Jupiter missions.

Also having a functional high gain antenna that lets newer spacecraft transmit much more scientific data is very helpful, particularly for measurements that require a lot of data. Obviously images contain a lot of data, which is why Galileo couldn't monitor Jupiter's weather on a regular basis (although the mission was nearly a complete success otherwise), and I think a particularly high volume of data comes from the laser altimeter and ground penetrating radar, both of which had no equivalent on Galileo.
 
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So, why can't some billionaire donate a billion or ten to NASA or ESA?

I'm sorry ESA, I'm afraid I can't do that
The budget of ESA, before announcing bad news.

If things go on like they do, we will soon have the "Coca-Cola Dark Monolith Jupiter Moon Mission".

Launched by a Boeing-SpaceX rocket from the "Apple Space Center".
The bad news


and the launch pad.


:cheers:
 

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ESA: "Preparing to build ESA's Jupiter mission"
Airbus Defence & Space in France has been selected as the prime industrial contractor for ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter and its icy moons.

The agency's Industrial Policy Committee approved the award of the €350.8 million contract yesterday. Pending the negotiation of contractual details, this should allow work to start by the end of this month. The formal contract signing will take place after the summer break.

The contract covers the industrial activities for the design, development, integration, test, launch campaign, and in-space commissioning of the spacecraft. The Ariane 5 launch is not included and will be procured later from Arianespace.

The spacecraft will be assembled in Toulouse, France, and many other ESA Member States will also be involved in Europe's first mission to the largest planet in the Solar System.

[...]
The configuration of JUICE, from Airbus:
 
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steph

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"Juice"? What was wrong with JIMO?
Man, that would've been a beast. More robotic spaceship than a "probe". At 58x19 meters, I guess it would easily have been the biggest "thing" we sent out there. And we could've refined the logistics of sending nuclear reactors into deep space, which can't be a bad thing.
 

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http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-35051034

Airbus and the European Space Agency have signed the contract that will lead to the construction of a satellite to go to study Jupiter and its icy moons.

Known as Juice, the mission is due to leave Earth in 2022 and arrive at the giant planet 7.5 years later.

The 350m-euro deal struck between industry and Esa will see the assembly of the 5.5-tonne probe being led from Toulouse in France.

Components and instruments will be sourced from across Europe, however.
 

francisdrake

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...and arrive at the giant planet 7.5 years later
To me it sounds wasteful to fly 7.5 years to a planet and then make only 2 flybys on the primary target. Or would that be the length of the primary mission only, with potentially many more flybys if the spacecraft lasts?
 
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