Discussion Hypothetical unified Third Reich and Empire of Japan space program

Soheil_Esy

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Alternate history: Hypothetical Axis victory in World War II

 
© A S☫heil presentation; First published 2015; Updated version 2016

Introduction
 
What if before 1945, the Third Reich and the Nipponese Empire did merge their independent and uncoordinated space programs.
The two Axis powers' exclusive game-enders will first be discussed, then a hypothetical commonly developed Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) key to an Axis' total victory over the Allied powers will be analysed.
Furthermore, the pivotal role of the Manchukuo puppet state and Guangdong region under the control of the Nipponese Empire in this untold Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD) arms race will also be clarified.


Table of Contents
Introduction
1. Background: The Opening Solar Concentrator
2. The Third Reich's game-ender, the Manned GEO Solar Concentrator WMD
Hint at future spacesuit's lineage
Human Spaceflight Bottleneck

3. The Empire of Japan's game-ender, the Near-space Directed Energy Airship WMD
Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum
Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory activity timeline
3.1. Directed energy weapons
3.1.1. EMFs weapons
Principle of Anti-Aircraft EMF weapons: Air Ionization and breakup
Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins
Feasibility of radio frequency ranged imagery

3.1.2. Uchūsen weapons (宇宙線兵器)
Yukawa’s meson exchange interaction for the nuclear force
The World Final Race Theory
Official Hint: 1942 New National Anthem of Manchukuo
-神風 Glossary
-Year 1942 in pop culture
--Stalin V Martians
--1942 Paranormal War (2005)
Nipponese developments in remote sensory transmissions
Pre-WWI Nipponese neuroscience research
Nipponese neuroscience research on the human central nervous system in the 1940s
Feasibility of studying the ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system
3.1.2.0. Airborne field particle accelerator
Main Mods unlocked by Riken

3.2.Hint at Nipponese attempt to develop nuclear power plants
Feasibility of airborne nuclear electric power plant
3.3. Nipponese Near Space Airships
Discovery of Kamikaze Divine Wind stratospheric current
Nipponese space weather in the 1940s
3.3.1. Nipponese unmanned stratospheric airship
Nipponese developments in remote controlled platforms
The Imperial Japanese Army Nagayama radio controlled prototype tank
Japanese guided missiles
Fu-Go
3.3.2. Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric airship
Nipponese space medicine in the 1940s
Human spaceflight bottleneck
Feasibility of manned stratospheric flight


Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric super-heavy airship
Napoleonic airborne UK landing operation concept circa 1802
The Class Struggle Period in Victorian era's Literature
Feasibility of controlled Divine Wind navigation
Feasibility of manned stratospheric super-heavy airship
3.4 Nipponese stealth super-heavy airship
Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook
4.1. The Germano-Nipponese game-ender, the Orbital Directed Energy WMD
Feasibility of upgraded A-4 engines
4.2. Bonus strategy: Post 1945 Axis victory with Trojan horse in outer space

Part 1
Background: The Opening Solar Concentrator


Yang-Sui (阳燧) Solar Ignitor, World’s Oldest Solar Device

During the sixth century BCE, Confucius wrote about the common use of curved mirrors shaped from shiny metal to concentrate the rays of the sun for making fire. These became known as yang-suis – translating to solar ignitors, or burning mirrors.

According to the great philosopher, upon waking up the eldest son would attach a solar ignitor to his belt as he dressed for the day. It was his duty to focus the solar rays onto kindling to start the family’s cooking fire.

According to another early text, the Zhouli, which describes rituals dating far back into Chinese antiquity, “The Directors of the Sun Fire have the duty of transferring with burning mirrors the brilliant flames of the sun to torches for sacrifice.”

Although scholars found over the years many ancient texts discussing solar ignitors, the discovery of an extant yang sui eluded them for centuries. Quite recently came the Eureka moment. Digging up a tomb that dated to about 3,000 years ago, a team of archaeologists found in the hand of a skeleton a bowl-shaped metal object. While the inner side could have passed for a wok, the exterior trough had a handle in its center. That’s what caught the eye of the two archaeologist in charge of the dig, Lu Demming and Zhai Keyong. They immediately brought the relic back to the local museum and ordered its specialists to make a mold from the original and then cast a copy in bronze.

After polishing its curved surface to a high degree of reflectance, the inquisitive archaeologists focused sunlight onto a piece of tinder just as the eldest son would have done so many years past, and in seconds the combustible material burst into flames. “This verified without a doubt that the purpose of the artifact is to make fire,” Lu and Zhai later wrote, assured of having found the oldest solar device in the history of humanity.

Now that the world could see what a real yang-sui looked like, museums retrospectively identified 20 more previously unclassified objects as solar ignitors. Multiple molds for turning out yang suislater found at a Bronze Age foundry in Shanxi province, close to the first find, suggest a mass market once existed for them. In fact, yang suis were probably as ubiquitous in early China as are matches and lighters today. The yang sui “should be regarded as one of the great inventions of ancient Chinese history,” remarked its discoverers, impressed by the ability of their forefathers to figure out the complex optics for such optimal performance so early in time.

7yrsjd.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yrsjd.jpg
http://1882.img.pp.sohu.com.cn/images/2011/4/7/17/29/u131742818_12fe87bbcb9g215.jpg
http://liujingyou100.blog.sohu.com/170966592.html


7yoV6K.jpg

http://s9.sinaimg.cn/mw690/001n7IPZzy6SUaPoNjWc8&690
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4af8f35f0102vkmc.html


7yoV6M.jpg

http://s3.sinaimg.cn/mw690/001Myf17zy6TZcD1TkC82&690
http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_615e1d510102vmlx.html


http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=g5Z...0gjx417MbY5GY4Td0zcZXuadDnxbftC2jaaYWfhpkvj-_

http://cleantechnica.com/2014/06/05/worlds-oldest-solar-device/
 
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Part 2

Part 2.
The Third Reich's game-ender, the Manned GEO Solar Concentrator WMD


Advantages: too high for fighter planes and anti-aircraft guns interception; virtually unlimited ammo; large coverage of the earth

Weakness: total lack of knowledge concerning space weather, earth radiation belts and magnetosphere; too massive; too long building time; requiring multiple launches; requiring rendezvous and docking prerequisites; manned crew in GEO irrealistic contrary to LEO; not stealthy launch centers, not stealthy once in space, giving Allied powers time to devise countermeasures; must be oriented within certain angle with the sun and the earth; sun rays blocked by cloud covers or burning city smokes


Secret Nazi plan to blow up cities, boil oceans with ‘sun gun’

April 03, 2013

secret-nazi-plan-to-blow-up-cities-boil-oceans-with-sun-gun-1364920790-5895.jpg


IT may sound like a something a Bond villain would propose, but these amazing picture reveals the secret plans drawn up by the German army to create a mile-wide ‘space gun’ powered by the sun.

The giant mirror could be used to focus the sun on a target - rather like the magnifying glasses often used by children to create fire. The pictures, from Life magazine in 1945, reveal to its readers how ‘US Army technical experts came up with the astonishing fact that German scientists had seriously planned to build a ‘sun gun’.’

The giant orbital mirror would ‘focus the sun’s rays to a scorching point on the earth’s surface.’ The German army, readers were told, ‘hoped to use such a mirror to burn an enemy city or to boil part of an ocean.’
The idea is the brainchild of renowned rocket scientist Hermann Oberth, in 1923. With an estimated cost of three million marks and taking 15 years to construct, the original purpose of the space mirror was to provide the people of earth with sunshine on demand, anywhere on the globe. As late as 1957, he was still convinced that his space mirror would become a reality, but also described it as the ‘ultimate weapon’.

In 1945, when the victorious Allies began sifting through captured Nazi war plans, it emerged the Nazis had updated Oberth’s proposals and begun looked into the possibility of the Third Reich building a mirror weapon in geosynchronous orbit 22,236 miles above the Earth - which was then reported in Life Magazine’s 23 July 1945 issue.

‘My space mirror,’ he wrote, ‘is like the hand mirrors that schoolboys use to flash circles of sunlight on the ceiling of their classroom. A sudden beam flashed on the teacher’s face may bring unpleasant reactions. I was a schoolteacher long enough to have collected certain data on the subject.’
Although there were no official details of the construction of the project, Life magazine believed it would we put into orbit in preassembled sections.

The entire surface of the mirror-front, back and edges-would be mirrored, ‘otherwise [the sun’s rays] would burn occupants of disk to death instantly,’ the magazine claimed.

The Life version of the mirror would also contain a manned space stations, with 30-foot holes in which supply rockets could dock, hydroponic gardens to provide oxygen and solar powered generators for electric power. Once in orbit, the ‘master rocket’ for the project would unreel six long cables, each only 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches thick. Spinning the rocket on its axis would extend the cables radially, allowing construction to begin.

http://nation.com.pk/entertainment/...an-to-blow-up-cities-boil-oceans-with-sun-gun

LIFE Magazine Jul 23, 1945


7yp7tq.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7tq.jpg
Third Reich's WMD in GEO focussing beam attack on New York State!


7yp7tr.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7tr.jpg
Third Reich's man-made satellite weaponry


7yp7ts.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7ts.jpg
Building of WMD; WMD with crew and resupply


7yp7tt.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7tt.jpg
Greenhouse producing oxygen supply for the crew


7yp7tw.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7tw.jpg
Solar electric generator and micro thrusters for attitude control assisting the targeting of the WMD


7yp7ty.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7ty.jpg
Centuries old of Archimedes hoax debunked


7yp7tz.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yp7tz.jpg
Relation between focal length and size of projected image at focal point


https://books.google.com/books?id=3...result#v=onepage&q=german space mirror&f=true

Hint for future spacesuit's lineage

Watanzug pressure suit for the Horten IX

06 / Jan./ 2003

watanzug1.jpg

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945

ziller_erwin2.jpg

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945

anzug.gif

For illustration purpose only. Image taken circa February 1945

http://www.pilotenbunker.de/Unbek_Helden/Ziller_Erwin/ziller_erwin.htm

Human Spaceflight Bottleneck

Due to the severe space environment beyond the thermosphere LEO, mainly radiations from the solar activity, the existence of several radiation belts in the Earth's magnetosphere, and the weightlessness, the old phantasm of human presence in GEO and farther is thus facing a serious technological bottleneck. The new Space Age colonization era would eventually be unlocked by further development in biotechnologies such as 3D bioprinting, but only the following century.

Among the many radiations awaiting the would be spacemen above the mesosphere, natural Proton Beams can not be overlooked.

On a cosmic scale

Sherri-Grant-image_1439829413_lg.jpg

Jeff-Hackenmueller-_DSC8793-4_1449896940_lg.jpg

Ordinary auroras are caused by electrons, which rain down on Earth's atmosphere from above. Atoms of oxygen and nitrogen, excited by the pitter-patter of electrons, form dynamic curtains of light. Protons have a different effect. For reasons not fully understood, protons normally trapped in our planet's ring current sometimes rain down on Earth's atmosphere during geomagnetic storms. En route, they excite a type of plasma wave called "EMIC"--short for electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The result is not a curtain, but rather a tight arc of light called Proton Arc as shown above.
http://spaceweathergallery.com/indi...d=116470&PHPSESSID=m2t481s8s9n62353ssijo5do90
http://spaceweathergallery.com/indi...d=120703&PHPSESSID=8ridlk6gpun9n7jspsaslgm3a7


On a more modest scale, the man-made laboratory artificial version of the phenomenon in the 1940s

normal_1~39.jpg

Lawrence's 60-inch cyclotron, circa 1939, showing an external beam of accelerated ions (perhaps protons or deuterons) ionizing the surrounding air and causing an ionized-air glow. Due to the similar mechanism of production, the blue glow is thought to resemble the "blue flash" seen by witnesses of criticality accidents in uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction.

Subatomic size projectiles are not the smallest one to prevent any human or artificial presence in outer space.
Another serious danger hindering any human-made activities in orbit is the collisions with even larger coalesced structures, starting from the size of meteorids, produced yearlong by outgassing comets, in their passage in the inner solar system. Such collisions are known to puncture rocket stages and tanks.


Frankie-Lucena-meteor_cropped_1000dpi_1450315590_lg.jpg

http://0e33611cb8e6da737d5c-e13b5a9...cena-meteor_cropped_1000dpi_1450315590_lg.jpg
A Geminid Meteor is captured from LEO as it entered the Earth's green air glow layer


2013_070B_Q65_11Sep2015_stack15x.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-4WzgrM-LW...Zk/s1600/2013_070B_Q65_11Sep2015_stack15x.jpg
The CZ-3C upper stage of the Chinese Chang'e 3 Lunar mission (2013-070B) was launched only two years ago on 2 December 2013. Observations during the summer months of 2015, up to 14 September 2015, suggested a stable flash period of about 423 seconds.
But somewhere between mid-September and late October 2015, things have changed.
The flash period had suddenly dropped, to 384 seconds on 24 October 2015, and has further dropped to 364 seconds on 6 December 2015. The most likely explanation is that the booster developed a fuel leak. A meteoroid impact can puncture the rocket stage and tanks. When this happens, fuel vapor escapes from the rocket stage, and acts as a mini rocket engine, giving the object some extra momentum. This can either speed up or slow down he tumbling speed of the object.
We have seen this happen a number of times with rocket stages in Low Earth Orbit as well, and there is no reason why this could not happen to a rocket stage in a trans-Lunar orbit.
http://sattrackcam.blogspot.com/2015/12/something-fuel-leak-happened-to-change.html

An unmanned robotic version in LEO should lower the risks from radiations exposure.

The larger a solar concentrator, the higher the risk of being impacted. Multiple platforms should also increase the probability of the weapon system's survival as compared to a single orbiting platform. Loosing some of the platforms will not completely stop the weapon from functioning, but only reduce its total output power. Each smaller individual concentrators being used to focalize a solar beam simultaneously at a same ground target.

If the gigantic single-piece concentrator is damaged, then it would need to be repaired. Smaller platforms when damaged or even destroyed can easily be replaced by another spared platform waiting in a bunker to be launched with a rapid reaction carrier rocket.
 
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Part 3

Part 3
The Empire of Japan's game-ender, the Near-space Directed Energy Airship WMD


According to the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum (陸軍登戸研究所), opened in March 29, 2010, several secret weapons were devised since the 1930s. Microwaves are the most documented with a known anti-aircraft version. (Army Noborito Institute <secret war> of the world," Yamada low Meiji peace education Noborito Institute museum, Meiji University Publishing Association (Original March 20, 2012), first edition, p7, p94-98. ISBN 9784906811007;『陸軍登戸研究所<秘密戦>の世界』 山田朗・明治大学平和教育登戸研究所資料館、明治大学出版会(原著2012年3月20日)、初版、p7,p94-98。ISBN 9784906811007。)

Artificial lightning created by ionizing the air with beams of Ultraviolet rays have also been documented (Akira Sakai, Ochiai Kumaichi "ultimate secret weapon of the world File" Gakken (Original March 10, 2010), first edition, 150 pages. ISBN 9784054045170; 坂井明、おちあい熊一 『決定版世界の秘密兵器File』 学習研究社(原著2010年3月10日)、初版、150頁。ISBN 9784054045170。)

Any of these secret weapons could have been fitted aboard super-heavy airships cruising in near space (altitude ranging from 20 km to under 100 km). The existence of these future exotic super-heavy airships appears in some sources.

Directed energy weapons are extremely energy consuming, with a power output of probably several hundreds of kW or even better several MW. Land based anti-aircraft microwave stations are known to be powered by dedicated electric power plants. Furthermore, to produce the buoyancy of the super-heavy airships, the large volume of gas (hydrogen or helium) must be heated, at altitude where oxygen rate is too low to sustain a combustion. A solution for these two problems could be the harnessing of nuclear energy.

To maximize the separation of the crew from hazardous radiations, the airship total length would have to be stretched to maximum extend, or alternately, the nuclear electric power plant would have to be suspended by means of several hundreds of meters long tethers.

Advantages: too high for fighter planes and anti-aircraft guns interception; not dependent on solar illumination; can be activated 24/7

Weakness: very slow airships possibly powered by kites surfing on jet streams; takeoff of airship requires good weather; Near-space's field coverage narrower than with LEO or GEO; rays could be blocked by cloud covers; limited ammo as the rays generators are extremely energy consuming; must accommodate a large crew limiting the military payload; endurance limiting mission time and range, not expendable as with unmanned platforms

Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum

2015

The defunct Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory Museum for Education in Peace is a most important site for studying WWII and pre WWII Japanese military history. The Noborito Museum used to be a research facility that focused on ‘clandestine warfare’ – counter intelligence, espionage activities, clandestine strategy and propaganda – which means that Noborito’s activities display the less-discussed and hidden aspects of warfare.

  • Address
    1-1-1 Higashi-mita,
    Tama-ku, Kawasaki-shi,
    Kanagawa 214-8571
    (Located in Ikuta Campus)

http://www.meiji.ac.jp/cip/english/institute/noborito.html

The Japanese Army Unit 731 Museum examines the top-secret research base, established in 1935 as the center of Japan’s most secretive WMDs warfare in China and Southeast Asia.

At least 4,000 people, mostly Chinese civilians, but also Russians, Koreans, Mongolians and Manchurians died in the experiments between 1935 and 1945.

When the Soviet Union took Harbin, capital city of Heilongjiang province, in August 1945, the retreating Japanese forces destroyed most of the facilities.

The main building of the base is now a museum, with photos, sculptures and exhibits of the equipment used by the Japanese. There are extensive English captions, but inaccurates.

The 10,000-square-meter building is divided into six exhibition rooms, displaying 10,050 relics excavated from the remains of Unit 731’s headquarters.


  • Location:
    Japanese Army Unit 731 Museum, Xinjiang Dajie 25, Ping Fang district, Harbin city, Heilongjiang province, P.R. China

http://www.731museum.org.cn/system/201401/101067.html

Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory activity timeline

Year Month Milestone
1936 December Research on Microwave weapons(く号兵器) started
1938 April Research on Lightning generator weapons(ら号兵器) started
1941 June Experiments conducted on live human subjects by Unit 731 in Manchuria; Note: this includes vacuum chamber for future space flight, directed energy weapons
1943 November First stratospheric balloon(ふ号兵器)prototype completed
1944 February Stratospheric balloon flight tested in Chiba Prefecture Ichinomiya coast
1944 November Start of stratospheric balloon bombing campaign on US mainland
(only in Japanese) http://www.meiji.ac.jp/noborito/about/index.html

9027d3d1f5dadf4dfaf12bdacce7602d.jpg

Noborito Lab 9th Institute museum: some of the various directed energy weapons (microwave, UV, IR, Ultra sound, etc) and other automated/remote controlled platforms research
http://blog.goo.ne.jp/ruribo0209/e/ae4059113f5cd2242b85e3735eec3db7


3.1. Directed energy weapons

3.1.1. EMF Weapons

Google translation

The research and development of special weapons, radio weapon was done here. By irradiating the sky with ultraviolet rays to produce lightning by ionization of the air had also been done in experiments

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/怪力線

The magnetron, built and named by Albert W. Hull at General Electric in 1921 was a HF device, Hidetsugu Yagi was convinced that it could also be a generator of VHF or even UHF signals.

A leader in Japanese electronics research, Kinjiro OKABE invented in 1927 the split anode-type magnetron, significantly decreasing the operating wavelength of oscillations, and promoted the application of microwaves (3cm wavelength, 10GHz frequency).

http://www.civic.ninohe.iwate.jp/100W/english2.html#EnvironmentalScienceCivilEngineeringArchitecture

1965

During the Second World War, Dr. Tomonaga was interested in developing a theory of microwave systems. He solved the motion of electrons in the magnetron and also developed a unified theory of the systems consisting of wave guides and cavity resonators.

http://tomonaga.nobelpr.com/1.htm

Nippon Radio Telegraph and Telephone Co., Ltd. developping in 1939 the world’s first cavity magnetron, with punched positive copper pole, 10cm wave length and 500W power.

CE5H2fwVEAAJRBZ.jpg


http://www.jrc.co.jp/eng/company/html/history.html

Principle of Anti-Aircraft EMF weapons: Air Ionization and breakup

A Study Of High Power Microwave Air Breakdown

23 December 1999

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research on microwave breakdown in air, it includes the experimental study and the theoretical analysis. The experimental study has been done in a waveguide with a frequency of 9.37GHz, the peak power up to 200kW, pulse width from 0.3 to 2.0μs. The repetition rate of microwave source is from single pulse to 970 pulse per second. The process of the breakdown of repetition pulse has also been recorded for a burst of ten pulses. A theoretical model for breakdown threshold is presented also. The theoretical are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

http://cpb.iphy.ac.cn/EN/abstract/abstract19818.shtml

Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory ruins (第二海軍技術廠牛尾実験所遺跡)

Note: The site and all the concrete ruins have been removed circa February 28, 2015


7yoU5G.jpg

http://ipic.su/7yoU5G.jpg

Coordinates:
34°51'23.8"N, 138°07'44.6"E
34.856607°N, 138.129065°E

https://www.google.com/maps/place/3...32m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0x0?hl=en

Published on Aug 14, 2013

First excavation made at the site of a former Navy Laboratory "High intensity radio waves weapons". Finding was reported on August 14.

This experimental station, is located in Ushio mountain "Second Naval Technology Factory Ushio Laboratory", Shizuoka Prefecture, Shimada city.

Experimental interceptions of enemy aircrafts were intended by irradiating a strong radio waves with a large dish.

At the end of the war, radio waves weapon could still not be put into practical use.

Research after the war, have unlocked applications such as a microwave oven.

Access to the Ushio mountain is planed to be closed because of the renovation of the Oi River flowing nearby.

Some voices claiming that the ruins represent an important part of the war asked for the recording of the site with drawings and photos.

However, locals have also called for the preservation of the historical site.

prm1501250017-p1.jpg

Ruin of WW2 microwave anti-aircraft platform used to shoot down Allied B-29, formerly housing a 10 meter parabola in Shizuoka Prefecture, Shimada Ushio
http://www.sankei.com/premium/news/150125/prm1501250017-n1.html


400x225.jpg


http://jp.tomonews.net/35301443518464

[/QUOTE]

Andrey Iskanov's Philosophy of a Knife (2008) is a Russian documentary representing artistic thus crude and gory but inaccurate reconstitution of Lieutenant-General Shiro Ishii's Unit 731 of the Kwantung Army most notorious experiments on live human subjects.

Of special interest are two scenes of pioneering experiments:

  • In the first scene, the early phase in neuroscience experiments, the subject's response to pain stimuli is monitored with electrophysiological recordings.

    The stated aim of the experiment is to discover and quantify the threshold in human beings of bearable pain before unconsciousness.

  • Then in the second scene, a more advanced phase in neuroscience experiments, external electrical stimuli are applied with the aid of needle electrodes to the spinal cord, inducing muscular contractions in the subject, and also monitored with electrophysiological recordings.

Feasibility of studying the ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system

South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

The Earth is surrounded by a pair of concentric donut-shaped clouds called the Van Allen radiation belts which, like magnetic bottle, store and trap charged particles from the solar wind. They are aligned with the magnetic axis of the Earth, which is tilted by 11 degrees from the rotation axis of the Earth, and are not symmetrically placed with respect to the Earth's surface. Although the inner surface is 1200 - 1300 kilometers from the Earth's surface on one side of the Earth, on the other they dip down to 200 - 800 kilometers. Above South America, about 200 - 300 kilometers off the coast of Brazil, and extending over much of South America, the nearby portion of the Van Allen Belt forms what is called the South Atlantic Anomaly. Satellites and other spacecraft passing through this region of space actually enter the Van Allen radiation belt and are bombarded by protons exceeding energies of 10 million electron volts at a rate of 3000 'hits' per square centimeter per second. This can produce 'glitches' in astronomical data, problems with the operation of on-board electronic systems, and premature aging of computer, detector and other spacecraft components.

The Hubble Space Telescope passes through the 'SAA' for 10 successive orbits each day, and spends nearly 15 percent of its time in this hostile region. Astronauts are also affected by this region which is said to be the cause of peculiar 'shooting stars' seen in the visual field of astronauts.

June_2014_magnetic_field_node_full_image_2.jpg

Earth's magnetic field in June 2014 as observed by the Swarm constellation, released on June 19, 2014
http://www.esa.int/var/esa/storage/...une_2014_magnetic_field_node_full_image_2.jpg


http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/q525.html

By 1935, Nishina had acquired sufficient funding to build a cyclotron of his own.
With advice from Lawrence and the experience gained by his assistants, Yasaki and Sagane, whom he had sent to Berkeley, it was brought into operation by April 1937 – the first outside the US - a remarkable achievement considering how well established all the European laboratories were.
...
as experiments began he was already ordering parts for a 60-inch cyclotron, just as Lawrence was in Berkeley.
This came into operation for the first time in 1939 producing 9-MeV protons, a world record for a brief period, though with very low beam intensity.
In fact, some major redesign was needed, ... that the intensity was raised to 4 μA, and then quickly to 180 μA of protons and 350 μA of deuterons, enabling a full experimental program to begin.

jI0p.jpg


http://www.nishina.riken.go.jp/researcher/seminar_past/nishina120/craddock.pdf

Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield)

10.21.14

Brief Summary

Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield) provides an assessment of the radiation environment inside the ISS.

Experiment/Payload Description

Research Summary

Astronauts in orbit are exposed to cosmic radiation that is of sufficient frequency and intensity to cause effects on the central nervous system. Radiation exposure represents one of the greatest risks to humans traveling on exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).

ALTEA-Shield is part of the ALTEA program, a multidisciplinary research project which aims at obtaining a better understanding of the light flash phenomenon, and more generally the interaction between cosmic rays and brain functions. Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space.

The Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA-Shield) experiment, developed by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), will measure the particle flux in the U.S. Laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS), being able to discriminate the type of particles, to measure their trajectories and the delivered energies.

Description

Radiation effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The use of the ALTEA instrument is proposed to improve the understanding of the effect of ionizing radiation on the CNS functions. The experimental program makes use of the ALTEA detectors to perform a radiation survey on board ISS.

jHZf.jpg

Experimental model for retinal interaction
http://ipic.su/jHZf.jpg


556660main_ALTEA8.jpg


http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/ALTEA-Shield.html

Nipponese study of ionizing radiation effect on the human central nervous system in the 1940s

torture_bed.jpg

Bed used to record the subject's reaction
SHELDON H. HARRIS, PHD. Chapter 16 JAPANESE BIOMEDICAL EXPERIMENTATION DURING THE WORLD-WAR-II ERA. p 504.
http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/ethicsvol2/ethics-ch-16.pdf

3.1.2.0. Airborne field particle accelerator

In order to be able to weaponize an airborne particle accelerator, Riken should have unlocked the next level in particle accelerator energy, reaching the threshold of >300 MeV to 500 MeV for protons/deuterons beam, needed to produce the first usefull electron-decaying particles.
Moreover, the overall size and mass of the cyclotron, with the electromagnet alone weighting 220 tons, should have imperatively needed to be shrinked.
A more compact design, while able to reach even higher energy level could have been possible with the replacement of the single massive electromagnet at the core of Nishina's cyclotron, with several smaller and more powerfull magnets for bending the particle beams, while acceleration would have been produced by radiofrequency cavities.

In this regard, the development of rare earth magnets are certainly in the right direction.
In July 1927, the geologist Ding Daoheng discovered the resources at Bayan Obo which is now known as the rare earth capital of the world. Although he is now upheld as a national hero for identifying what is still thought by some to be the world’s largest rare earth deposit, he was part of a group within the expedition that was entirely focused on identifying iron resources to provision German, Russian, and nascent Chinese industry.
https://www.bu.edu/pardeeschool/files/2015/08/Klinger-2015-Extractive-Industries-and-Society.pdf


Main Mods unlocked by Riken

Due to the inherent specificity of high penetrability of the hard component attributed to the meson, applications unlocked by Riken's researches lead to three main mods.
  • Mod.1. Requiring only a single platform, this is the most basic to field. Like directed energy counterparts, used to disrupt, degrade or destroy targets, depending on the charge and output level, by producing a hot spot or "plasma ball". Like microwaves, able to penetrate some layers of clouds and light building structures; but totally outmatching EMF, against hardened building structures, armored metal targets and even some underground depth (possibly shallower than 500 meters).
  • Mod.2. Requiring multiple pairings of platforms, where spacing and alignments are necessary to keep the whole array in working formation.
    Each pairing of platforms made of one signal source and one signal receptor. A single signal source can be paired with more than one signal receptor, globally increasing both the scanning area and number of tracked targets.
    With lower energy output level than the first mod. Non offensive class asset.
    Used for intelligence only, in the most stealthy covert operations.
    Can perform reconnaissance as well as eavesdropping on enemy personnel, hardware and communications.
    Provides real-time ultra-high resolution structural imagery scanning.
    Can directly tap into electrical sensors such a cameras, telephones, radios, sonars, radars, etc.
    When targeting living organisms, can directly record live sensory perception representations of the environment in various channels, including IR, various visible bands, UV, light polarization, magnetic fields, electric fields, pressure waves, various vibrations, infrasounds, audible sounds, ultrasounds, temperature, accelerations, various type of molecular detections, etc, depending on the organisms' abilities.
     
  • Mod.3. Upgraded version of the second mod. With variable and higher energy output level than the second mod. Offensive class asset. Used for electronic countermeasure warfare, to jam and neutralise detection systems (radar, sonar, anti-aircraft searchlight, etc.) or any enemy electrical assets. Used in more broader 5D electrical warfare to disrupt, deny, deceive, and even dominate (control) thus allowing destruction of enemy targets, including engines, communication apparatus, but also larger structures such as power plants, factories and aircraft carriers. Any living entities relying on electrical charges at the molecular level to function constitutes also good soft targets, including yeast, beehives, crops, cattle, homing pigeons, war dogs, military personnel and civilians alike.
 
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Part 4

Hint at Nipponese attempt to develop nuclear power plants

2002

During the war, as Japan's supreme authority of atomic physics, Nishina led one of the principal wartime nuclear power projects.
The Japanese did not get far enough to have to decide whether to build a bomb or a reactor; therefore "nuclear power project" is more appropriate for their endeavor.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/hsps.2002.33.1.61?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

2005

Collaboration in Nishina's group crossed disciplinary boundaries, too. Nishina's first disciple, Takeuchi Masa, was in fact trained as an applied chemist at Tokyo Higher Technical School, and knew little about physics. The collaboration between the Nishina group and Kimura Kenjiro's group of chemists at Tokyo University produced eight papers between 1938 and 1942 on Uranium. Kimura another Copenhagen alumnus, had already worked with Nishina in Copenhagen on the dependance of the x-ray spectrum on chemical binding. The most important result of their collaboration in Tokyo was the discovery of uranium-237, made possible by a combination of physical technique (illumination of fast neutrons generated by the lithium-deuterium reaction and the 27-inch cyclotron constructed by Riken) and chemical technique (chemical separation of non-uranium elements).

https://books.google.com/books?id=q...v=onepage&q=japanese biologist Murati&f=false

march 2008

Yoshio Nishina made the discovery of symmetric fission phenomena by fast neutron irradiation of uranium (1939 - 40), published in Phys. Rev. and Nature;

http://www.nishina-mf.or.jp/english/NishinaMemorialFoundation2008.pdf

2005

Fission studies were also carried out at the [Nishina lab by this time in [1941]] by physicists such as Kenjiro Kimura.
...
The aim was to seperate uranium 235 by gaseous thermal diffusion method.

https://books.google.com/books?id=O...UUCh3L4gdS#v=onepage&q=sakata nishina&f=false

August 7, 2013

Meanwhile, technical officers in another division of the navy's research organization, the Bureau of Ships, also began a preliminary investigation of nuclear fission for military purposes.
...

In the manufacture of these highly volatile chemicals, the electrolytic process yielded small amounts of “heavy water”(i.e. deuterium oxide) as a by-product.
Long after the war, some seized on the presence of heavy water at the NZ plant as evidence of Japan's “nuclear research” at Hungnam

Heavy water is but one of many components that can be used in the construction of a nuclear reactor, but it is not essential.
...
Nishina, the civilian scientist in charge of nuclear research for the army at the Riken, once entertained the idea of constructing a type of nuclear “heat engine,” that would have used a mixture of “light” water and enriched uranium
...
It is well documented in Japanese and U.S. sources that, during the war, both the Japanese army and navy made efforts to locate uranium-bearing ores in Korea. Sometime around spring 1943, the army sent an officer to Korea to examine the Kikune mine near Seoul.

The army also sent orders to its field commanders in Manchukuo (i.e. Manchuria), China, and in the South Sea Islands to find uranium. Research expeditions were even sent to Mongolia and as far away as Burma. Some uranium-bearing ores were located in Manchuria, but their uranium content was very low, and they were never shipped to Japan.
...
Only a heavily industrialized site such as Hungnam with its connection to the great hydroelectric generating plants could have supported a viable effort to enrich uranium on a large-scale.
...

Nearly a year later, U.S. military intelligence officials in occupied Japan also began to hear rumors that the Soviets were engaged in surveying and mining uranium bearing ores in northern Korea.
...

Just four months after the outbreak of the Korean War, the Times reported that a South Korean Army unit had captured what appeared to be a uranium ore processing plant in Hungnam
...
What the documents revealed was actually Nishina's design for something akin to a crude nuclear reactor

Largest known rare earth deposit discovered in north Korea

a total mineralisation potential of 6 billion tonnes with total 216.2 million tonnes rare-earth-oxides including light rare earth elements (REEs)
Uranium in north Korea is commonly found in monazite, a phosphate mineral that also contains thorium.

http://www.nknews.org/2014/08/what-lies-beneath-north-koreas-uranium-deposits/
Monazite deposits are mined for their rare earth and thorium content.

http://geology.com/minerals/monazite.shtml


http://www.mining.com/largest-known-rare-earth-deposit-discovered-in-north-korea-86139/

http://wwwtest.bgsu.edu/content/dam...d-sciences/history/documents/gruden-essay.pdf

Feasibility of airborne nuclear electric power plant

Soviet Nuclear Bomber

Aviation Week, December 1, 1958, p28

to provide containment shielding for neutron radiation and ... protecting the crew quarters from gamma radiation.
The extreme length of the aircraft fuselage also would be aimed at maximum separation of crew from radiations ...

http://aviationweek.com/site-files/...loads/2014/10/1958- Soviet Nuclear Bomber.pdf

Resuscitating the Atomic Airplane in America: Flying on a Wing and an Isotope

December 5, 2008

No matter how well shielded, crew and passengers would still run a high risk of exposure to radiations.
What's more, the planes would have to be so large—about twice the size of a 747.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/nuclear-powered-aircraft/

Soviet airborne nuclear power plant

February 2, 2015

VpfucCH.jpg

http://media.englishrussia.com/newpictures/Russian-atomic-nuclear-airplane-M-60M/8309f8c083e84a9ac84655bd907bb8_thumb.jpg

The TU-95LAL. Behind the pilots cabin there was a very thick layer of radiation protection installed. However the outer walls were not that thick and radiation could go on the sides.


4kPY5BT.jpg

http://media.englishrussia.com/newpictures/Russian-atomic-nuclear-airplane-M-60M/8d4c4c52318ef4321ec19f57772c20.jpg

This is how they were removing and installing the reactor from/into the plane.


http://englishrussia.com/2015/02/02/soviet-atomic-nuclear-airplane-m-60m/6/


3.3. Nipponese Near Space Airships

Nipponese unmanned stratospheric airship

Kamikaze (神風), or Divine Wind are Providential typhoons capable of turning the tide of an already lost war, and said to have saved Japan from two devastating Mongol invasion fleets under Kublai Khan. These fleets attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281. These were the first events where the typhoons were described as "divine wind" as much by their timing as by their force.

Assault.jpg

Japanese boats boarding a Mongol ship in Hakata Bay, 1281, size of ships is simulated from archeological remains
http://historum.com/asian-history/46029-east-asian-ships-pictures-5.html

Discovery of Kamikaze Divine Wind stratospheric current

2003

World War I interrupted Japan’s plan to start upper-air observations.
...
Wasaburo Ooishi, founded Japan’s first upper-air observatory at Tateno, in 1920.
Observation at Tateno began in April 1921. By late 1921, records were routinely archived;
...
On 2 December 1924, Ooishi awoke to clear skies over Tateno. A cold front had passed over the city on the previous day.

Ooishi launched a 120-g balloon (~ 1 m-diameter) on 2 December (10 A.M., LST) and followed it with the single theodolite.
With a nominal ascent rate of 300 m/min, the balloon reached the 9-km level in ~ 30 min.

Analysis of the data from this launch revealed a west wind of 72 m/s (~ 140 kts) just below the 10-km level (~ 33,000 ft).

Ooishi discovered that the strong westerly wind he observed in December 1924 was not unusual, at least not for the active weather season (late fall–early spring).

sokufuu01.jpg

Pilot balloon launch
http://www.jma-net.go.jp/kousou/obs_second_div/history/img/sokufuu01.jpg
http://www.jma-net.go.jp/kousou/obs_second_div/history/history01.html


http://www.lehalle.free.fr/clog/down/ooishi.pdf

https://books.google.com/books?id=U...9pzJAhUNhhoKHXvHBIQ#v=onepage&q=大石和三郎&f=false

Nipponese space weather in the 1940s

2005

In 1940, Nishina and his laboratory studied the influence of typhoons on cosmic-ray intensities, greater emphasis was placed on research considered useful in understanding high-altitude atmospheric conditions. Part of the project would entail making very precise cosmic-ray counters, which would incorporate Geiger-Muller counters.

Nov 10, 2014

The unusual increase of cosmic rays was observed on March 7, 1942 (increase following exceptionally large solar flare as it was later discovered)
...
Tamaki analyzed the transport of cosmic rays in the atmosphere

http://www.researchgate.net/publication/258739883_The_Birth_of_Cosmic_Ray_Work_in_Japan

https://books.google.com/books?id=O...AD#v=onepage&q=japan cosmic ray 1942&f=false

Nipponese developments in remote controlled platforms

2014

The Imperial Japanese Army Nagayama radio controlled prototype tank

The IJ Army's radio controlled tank development started under the direction of Captain Nagayama in the 1920s.

First transmitter and receiver set produced on March 1927.

Production of the first tank prototype succeeded in March 13, 1930.

643fb0b3-s.jpg

http://livedoor.blogimg.jp/janome_gotyou/imgs/6/4/643fb0b3-s.jpg
Nagayama radio-controlled tank, ("Poplar Science" August 1930)
http://blog.livedoor.jp/janome_gotyou/archives/41520427.html


http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/長山号
4 Sept. 1945

Japanese guided missiles

To date the "I-go" series (A and B) is the only flyable result of pilotless missles found in JAPAN, and this was an army-sponsored program.
It included the most elementary radio and auto-pilot control system.
...
about 150 missiles were constructed, and a total of about 17 missiles actually test-flown
...
about 70% to 80% were considered effective hits.
...
In July 1944, a radio controlled flying bomb design was started.
By the end of October 1944 the first model of "I-go" B was ready for test.
The first "I-go" A was built and dropped at the end of November 1944.
...

A jet unit was provided in both "I-go" A and B for additional speed which operated for about eighty seconds.
The jet motor was designed by Mitsubishi engine laboratory and delivered 10 ton-second thrust using hydrogen peroxid and a catalyst.
The people concerned were emphatic in their assertions that no information on German guided missile was ever available to them.

Description of "I-go"
Type "I-go" A "I-go" B
Span 6 m 4 m
Weight 1500 kg 750 kg
Warhead 800 kg 300 kg
Thrust of Jet 300 kg 150 kg
Speed 550 km/h 550 km/h
Range 11 km 11 km
Mother plane Ki-48 Ki-67

ki147-ki67.jpg

Ki-147 I-Go-1A ASM
http://www.airwar.ru/weapon/ab/igo1.html


http://www.fischer-tropsch.org/prim...Reports/USNTMJ-200D-0550-0575 Report 0-02.pdf

Fūsen bakudan

The program is known as Fu-Go (ふ号兵器), and "balloon bomb" as fūsen bakudan (風船爆弾). The etymology of the Japanese word for "balloon" used in fūsen bakudan, is "windly vessel". Note that the common word kikyū (気球), and often designating hot air balloon is not used on purpose. This is to stress the novelty of this new platform's propulsion mode.

To have an idea on how to surf the powerful jet streams (250 hPa | ~10,500 m, jet stream) and above, a visualization of global weather conditions forecast by supercomputers here: http://earth.nullschool.net/#current/wind/isobaric/10hPa/orthographic=-180.40,90.01,339



a6478a3f82b2ae934142761c00717f40.jpg

Noborito Lab 9th Institute museum: first version of unmanned robotic intercontinental strategic stratospheric platform; hinting at future manned larger versions

Jul 25, 2015

The fūsen bakudan (or fu-gō, as they were commonly called) were high-altitude explosive and incendiary devices that were sent over the Pacific toward North America. With no targeting system, they landed at random.

Their development was centered at the Imperial Japanese Army Noborito Laboratory, located in the hills of Kawasaki southwest of Tokyo on land in Kanagawa Prefecture that now belongs to Meiji University. Known for its links to the military Unit 731, which experimented on human subjects in Harbin, the lab was charged with developing secret weapons and techniques.
...
In response to the April 1942 “Doolittle Raid” on Tokyo — the first U.S. attack on Honshu — Japan wanted to hit back by any means possible. The army considered initial plans to load high-flying balloons with the rinderpest virus, but this was ultimately abandoned for fear of a terrible retaliation by the U.S. — which came anyway in the form of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
...
What made the balloons ingenious was their design and deployment. The main part was a hydrogen-filled balloon up to 10 meters wide that would carry explosives and incendiaries far across the Pacific to enemy territory 10,000 km away.
...
For a military weapon, the papermaking technique may have been crude but it kept the hydrogen gas from escaping, even at very high altitudes with low air pressure.
...
It was a weapon that could soar far above the land and sea, using a force of nature that had never been exploited before. In the 1920s, Japanese meteorologist Wasaburo Oishi conducted a series of experiments with pilot balloons launched from various locations in Japan. His accurate recordings from Tsukuba, northeast of Tokyo, led him to conclude that there were persistent, high-altitude winds blowing from the west, at least during the winter and spring in Japan. When the military gained control of his aerological observatory in the 1930s, Oishi’s data was “instrumental in planning the balloon bomb program
...
Japan may have lacked the B-29 Superfortresses that would level its cities, but it had a new way to attack its foe: the jet stream.
...
“In many ways, it was the first intercontinental weapons system,” “The mechanism that kept the balloon at the appropriate altitude so that it kept travelling in the jet stream and that, ultimately, released the incendiary and high-explosive bombs had to work in a hostile, high-altitude environment, with very low temperatures and low air pressure.”
...
About 7 to 10 percent of the 9,300 bombs sent toward North America are believed to have survived the transpacific crossing and about 300 are confirmed to have landed.

p14-hornyak-balloon-bombs-b-20150726.jpg

A tree snags a balloon bomb in Kansas on Feb. 23, 1945. | KYODO

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/20...loon-bombs-took-pacific-battle-american-soil/

2005

High-altitude jet stream weather radiosondes were first introduced in 1944, onboard the Fūsen intercontinental ballons. Wireless transmitters could send back to Japanese shortwave ground stations, data collected by onboard pressure, temperature and humidity sensors.

http://www.jma-net.go.jp/kousou/obs_second_div/history/history02.html

3.3.2. Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric airship

xinsrc_21308051616026092011625.jpg

For illustration purpose only. "When attacking enemy fortress, it is best to first reconnoiter enemy troops deployment with the use of Kongming Wagons, -Three Kingdoms: Fate of the Dragon"

http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=8ye...pdxbBXwghZtDJQUGUGJ8qJ8d2nnTBvRLDz8YXTY63PI3e

CQ-JkNdUkAAyonn.jpg

Speculative depiction of Nipponese "death defying" Special Commando Unit, inserted into US mainland by air and conducting nuclear "radiological bomb" suicide attacks

Nipponese space medicine in the 1940s

  • Andrey Iskanov's Philosophy of a Knife (2008) is a Russian documentary representing artistic thus crude and gory but inaccurate reconstitution of Lieutenant-General Shiro Ishii's Unit 731 of the Kwantung Army most notorious experiments on live human subjects.

    Of special interest is the last experiment of the film, involving a vacuum pressure chamber in order to study the effect of decompression on the human organism.

    The purpose was to discover how much time a man would have, before complete loss of consciousness, if it was to be a breakdown high in the sky.

    At one second the pressure in the chamber containing a man was lowered from 192 to less than 2.

  • Several other scenes show human subjects being exposed to x-ray for hours, to study the characteristic types of radiation damage associated with ionizing radiation.
    Since the quantum energies of x-ray photons are much too high to be absorbed in electron transitions between states for most atoms, they can interact with an electron only by knocking it completely out of the atom. That is, all x-rays are classified as ionizing radiation.
    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod3.html#c1

    In interactions with matter, x-rays are ionizing radiation and produce physiological effects which are not observed with any exposure of non-ionizing radiation, such as the risk of mutations or cancer in tissue.
    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/ems3.html#c4

  • Bonus hint: Man Behind the Sun is another historical war series movies dedicated to the reconstitution of Unit 731's human experimentations.

    There is only one experiment worthy to be mentioned, in the second opus, known as Maruta 2: Laboratory of the Devil (1992) and directed by Godfrey Ho.

    An experiment that involved the use of minus 200 degrees liquid nitrogen, allowing cryogenic temperature to be tested on humans, conditions hinting at preparation for space missions.

    Quote: "human bones immersed into liquid nitrogen at minus two hundred become very brittle"

8428461383_82e25096b6_c.jpg

Key data: Harbin Unit 731 Japanese Warfare Museum - modern but inaccurate depiction of vacuum pressure chamber experiments in preparation for manned space missions

426665892750.jpg

Japanese Army Unit 731: the first cryogenic experimentations were conducted in this building completed in 1940.
http://manage.731museum.org.cn/att/news/201401/27/426665892750.jpg
http://www.731museum.org.cn/system/201402/101287.html
Vol 14 No 178 Post Register 1945-06-04

Japanese propagandists predicted Monday the United States would be attacked in "the near future by bomb carrying stratosphere balloons manned by death defying Japanese pilots." The broadcast, by Japanese Domei news agency and recorded by the federal communications commission, said Lt. Col. Shozo Nakajima, propaganda spokesman of the Nipponese armed services, made the prediction. Nakajima said the pilotless balloon attacks, recently disclosed by the U. S. army, were launched against America last March 10, Japanese army day, and that hundreds of them had been released from Japan every day since. "The spokesman pointed out," Domei added, "that thus far these attacks have been on an experimental scale and he predicted that when actual results of the experiment have been obtained, large scale attacks with death defying airmen manning the balloons will be launched." The dispatch, dated Singapore added: "The balloon bomb is one of Japan's unique originations and it is specially significant in that by the use of this method of bombing we can attack the enemy mainland directly from Japan — something that the enemy cannot boast of.

http://cdm15999.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15999coll12/id/103194

Feasibility of manned stratospheric flight

2015

tn_esq_manhigh.gif

manhigh-III-a.jpg

manhigh-III-b.jpg

manhigh.jpg

Manhigh balloon gondola. Gross mass: 747 kg

A manned balloon flight was one of the best ways of testing such improvements and of finding out if man is capable, physically and psychologically, of extended travel at space-equivalent altitude.
...
All agreed that a twenty-four-hour manned flight at about 115,000 feet was feasible.
...
Meanwhile, the Holloman program could also profit from knowledge and experience available at Wright Field, especially in the field of high-altitude parachute systems
...
In its early stages, the Holloman manned-balloon program was called Project Daedalus, a name later changed to Man-High.
...
The prospects included both new flights with the existing Man-High capsule, which was perfectly reusable, and the development of even bigger and better "floating scientific laboratories." As early as April 1957, Winzen Research, Incorporated submitted an "unsolicited proposal" for a balloon-borne "Satelorb" research platform capable of weeklong flights with five or more men at 100,000 feet.
A two-man version of the Man-High capsule, with room for a pilot and a full-time scientific observer, was another alternative less elaborate than "Satelorb" but easier to obtain on short notice.72 And, of course, the ultimate outgrowth of the manned balloon capsule could be only one thing: a manned satellite.

http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/afspbio/part2-4.htm

Human spaceflight bottleneck

Radiation levels peak at the entrance to the stratosphere in a broad region called the "Pfotzer Maximum." This peak is named after physicist George Pfotzer who discovered it using balloons and Geiger tubes in the 1930s. Radiation levels there are more than 80x sea level.

Note that the bottom of the Pfotzer Maximim is near 55,000 ft. This means that some high-flying aircraft are not far from the zone of maximum radiation.

A plane flying at 45,000 feet is exposed to 2.79 uSv/hr. At that rate, a passenger would absorb about one dental X-ray's worth of radiation in about 5 hours.

The radiation sensors onboard helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

pfotzer_22oct15_strip.jpg


http://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=31&month=12&year=2015

February 28, 2002

Cosmic radiation presents the most serious challenge for space exploration.

People in Yangjiang, China, live with radiation levels three times the world average but have below-average cancer levels.

In fact, research shows that a gene responsible for the production of white blood cells and so-called "natural killer cells" that attack tumors was more strongly expressed among the population.

http://www.wmsym.org/archives/2002/proceedings/10/434.pdf

Recruiting airship crew from populations already used to dealing with more exposure to radiation than most of the rest of Nipponese, from Yangjiang, Guangdong Province, region controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army, could help both breaking the spaceflight bottleneck, and the nuclear power plant radiations challenge as well.
 
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Part 5

Hint at future Nipponese manned stratospheric super-heavy airship

Napoleonic airborne UK landing operation concept circa 1802

f1.highres

Large JPG image
For illustration purpose only. Another poster, released in 1804, showed huge troop movements across the Channel not only by balloon and boat but also through the tunnel. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8413295f


f1.highres

Large JPG image
For illustration purpose only. Published 8 July 1803. Proposed in Year 6, La Thiloriere was intended to carry up to 3,000 men, horses and cannons of the forefront invading army. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8509550q


The Class Struggle Period in Victorian era's Literature

jones-george-invasion-012630_h_1-002.jpg

For illustration purpose only. George Griffith’s The Angel of the Revolution (1893)

jones-george-invasion-012630_h_1-003.jpg

For illustration purpose only. George Griffith’s The Angel of the Revolution (1893) tells the story of a group of revolutionaries who conquer the world using airship technology. They create a ‘Brotherhood of freedom’ establishing a ‘pax aeronautica’ over the earth.
This melodramatic fantasy of air warfare and the socialist message influenced H G Wells and foreshadowed the air battles of World War I. In novels like The War in the Air (1908), H G Wells emphasised the importance of the aircraft. http://www.bl.uk/romantics-and-victorians/articles/the-fear-of-invasion

January-February 1968

Shimuzu Rikuro, a former press attache of the Japanese Embassy in Argentina and manager of the Domei News Agency in that country, stated that the balloons were a "prelude to something big."

http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1968/jan-feb/conley.html

1973

Japanese navy continued with balloon research under a new concept which consisted of balloons capable of carrying a crew to effect some flight control.
A model test was conducted at the Fujikura Industries Company in Tokyo, but never went beyond the testing stage before the war ended. Other exotic ideas were brought up, but never materialized.

http://library.uoregon.edu/ec/e-asia/read/balloon.pdf

Feasibility of controlled jet stream navigation

img_0

For illustration purpose only.

Speculative addition of gigantic kites to effect some flight control while surfing the jet stream. This would also allow airships to stay high above the air currents, far from enemy interceptors and flak.

Feasibility of manned stratospheric super-heavy airship

To increase the payload of an airship, a simple technological evolution would be the clustering of multiple airships, similar to rocketry development, instead of developing a totally new heavier airship.


Dec. 7th, 2010

Able to rise to 25,000-30,000 meters, accelerate to 700-800 mph - and release the shuttle

as a platform for the launch of "Buran", with suspended cables.

Total Structure / Landing Systems Mass of Buran: 42,000 kg
Functional Systems and Propulsion of Buran: 33,000 kg
Maximum Payload of Buran: 30,000 kg
Total Mass of Buran: 105,000 kg


http://www.astronautix.com/articles/buran.htm

NAJN8JTZ6j84qyziWgD8p0lao1_500.jpg

For illustration purpose only. Myasishchev V-90 airship project

VS-90_sc1.jpg

https://sites.google.com/site/stingrayslistofrotorcraft/myasishchev-vs-90

VS-90_sc2.jpg


http://ru-wunderluft.livejournal.com/234593.html


3.4. Nipponese stealth super-heavy airship

By applying a ferrite-based coating on the metallic fuselage of the airship, where radiowaves are the most reflected could have significantly reduced its radar signature.
But coating the entire envelope of the airship would have increased the overall mass. A solution would have been to coat only the lower half of a lens-shaped (plano-convex) rather than cylindrical envelope.
In addition, the dark hue of the coating would have also reduced the risk of flaring in the visible band, allowing a stealthy ingress into the American continent.


The world's first ferrite magnet – discovered by accident

The world's first ferrite magnet was discovered in 1930 by Dr. Yogoro Kato and Dr. Takeshi Takei, two professors at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Dr. Takei, a student of Dr. Kato, was investigating how lowering zinc yield during the zinc refining process affected the physical properties of ferrite when he happened upon ferrite with high magnetism levels. Up to that point, magnets had almost always been composed of metal, but Dr. Takei made the monumental discovery that like iron rust, ferrite's primary component was ferric oxide, making it a viable magnet material.

At the time, as it was yet unclear whether “ferrite” would have a future or not. As a result of joint research by the Tokyo Institute of Technology and TDK, a product called “ferrite core” was produced and applied for the first time worldwide in 1937 in a number of Japanese wireless communication units and radios. By the end of the World War II, as many as 5 million units had been shipped by TDK.
http://www.global.tdk.com/about_tdk/code_of_conduct/chapter_two.htm

con02_01.jpg

https://product.tdk.com/en/techlibrary/archives/vol07_fb/img/con02_01.jpg

https://product.tdk.com/info/en/techlibrary/archives/techjournal/vol07_fb/contents02.html
July 1988

Absorbent coverings first came to public notice in January 1982, when the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo called TDK company, a well-known manufacturer of electronic equipment, with a strange request. The Embassy wanted to buy one gallon of paint. So strange were the events surrounding the request that it took until August for Japan's Ministry of Trade and Industry to give an OK.
The paint, it turned out, had been developed to stop leaks from microwave ovens. It contained ferrites -- iron containing compounds -- and was apparently of interest to U.S. researchers who were trying to design radar-absorvtive coatings for planes. Because Japan bans the export of defense-related technology, and ferrite paint was apparently wanted for stealth project, the Ministry took the matter under advisement.
It turned out that another Japanese company -- Nippon Electric Co. (NEC) had also developed a similar paint that had been used to coat towers and buildings in sensitive locations to eliminate TV ghosts and scattering of unwanted radio waves. NEC had worked out a technique using two layers of the ferrite material separated by a dielectric -- an insulator. Such an electronic sandwich, researchers found, could absorb much microwave energy striking it over a frequency range of 3.5 to 20 gigaherz. And, most significantly, most military and commercial radars operate in the 10- to 30-gigaherz range.
https://books.google.com/books?id=R...=onepage&q=german ferrite stealth ww2&f=false

Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook

Dec. 15, 2015

Unlike normal grey-white clouds, which hug Earth's surface at altitudes of only 5 to 10 km, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) float through the stratosphere (25 km) and they are fantastically colorful.

Also known as "nacreous" or "mother of pearl" clouds, the icy structures form in the lower stratosphere when temperatures drop to around minus 85ºC. Sunlight shining through tiny ice particles ~10µm across produce the characteristic bright iridescent colors by diffraction and interference. Once thought to be mere curiosities, some PSCs are now known to be associated with the destruction of ozone.

"Nacreous clouds far outshine and have much more vivid colours than ordinary iridescent clouds.

They are seen mostly during winter at high latitudes. Elsewhere their appearance is often associated with severe tropospheric winds and storms.

Truls-Tiller-IMG_7318-2_1450262602_lg.jpg

Sarah-Skinner-_SLS6949_1450090279_lg.jpg

Fictitious 1945 INSF Admiral logbook: "Sighting of most auspicious Nacreous Clouds from 25 km altitude in the stratosphere, far above enemy flak and interceptors, while cruising stealthily the Divine Wind safely at 200 km/h top speed, via the polar route toward the final waypoints, North America's East Coast capital cities. This bodes well for our first ever wintertime and maiden voyage, which should also be our ultimate mission. From our success will depend the fate of our Empire. Innumerable are the civilian foes who will lose their lives, but this will eventually bring an end to the Greater East Asian War. As virtuous warriors, true to the Bushidō, we will do our duties with daring and indomitable spirit to ensure that the honour of the Tennō shall be preserved. By prosecuting the War of Great East Asia to its final conclusion, the unconditional surrender of the Allied should soon reward the Shōwa-Tennō."

http://spaceweather.com/archive.php?view=1&day=15&month=12&year=2015

Part 4
4.1. The Germano-Nipponese game-ender, the Orbital Directed Energy WMD


Using the remote Manchukuo hinterland as space launch center, thus out of reach from Allied bombers, and providing cover from enemy prying eyes. Using Third Reich A-4 rocket engines in clusters in the first stage of a heavy space launchers, and orbiting smaller space platforms containing energy generators modules, directed energy weapon section, communication, control and targeting sections.

Robotic unmanned version could be placed in LEO or higher.

Advantages: faster development; fast launch and deployment; worldwide coverage with LEO; more stealthy to deploy than large solar concentrator in GEO; expendable if unmanned

Weakness: limited ammo as it consumes electricity unless nuclear powered, in this case might not be crewed; need replacement parts unlike solar concentrators

640

640

http://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz/FoRLwUcA...VJ0FNmJseg/640?wx_fmt=jpeg&wxfrom=5&wx_lazy=1
For illustration purpose only. Baicheng Space Launch Site, located in the heart of Manchukuo and bordering Inner Mongolia, was Asia's first sounding rocket launch site. Strategically situated, not too close to the Soviet Union's border, thus preserving the secrecy of its activities. Perfect for monitoring any rocket's first stage launch before its flying over the Mainland Japan.
http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA...312&idx=1&sn=c6abf2e3d8b16305885eb1e5859eab19



pole%2016.gif

For illustration purpose only. Launched on 15 May 1987, from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 250, Polyus would have been the core module of the new MIR-2 (Peace-2) Soviet space station. The Polyus military testbed was the first disclosed orbital directed energy platform, fitted with a megawatt-class carbon-dioxide laser.
Polyus was covered by an optically black shroud and it was suspected that this may have been radar absorptive as well.
http://www.buran.ru/htm/cargo.htm


OrbitalSniperCollage.gif

For illustration purpose only. From "Orbital Eunuchs Sniper" video game

Feasibility of upgraded A-4 engines

The German engineers at Zentralwerke had already begun development of an improved V-2 engine in 1945. Through relatively simple measures the thrust was increased to 30 metric tons. Glushko then found that by using 96% alcohol fuel in place of the V-2's 75%, the basic engine would deliver 37 metric tons thrust.
...
The increased-thrust engine allowed the rocket to be stretched, with a lift-off mass 50% greater than the V-2.

http://www.astronautix.com/fam/r2.htm

4.2. Bonus strategy: Post 1945 Axis victory with Trojan horse in outer space

A last ditch attempt to avert the foreseen defeat, by strategically planning and offering a feigned surrender, thus turning the tide of the war to finally achieve a late post 1945 Axis victory. Pivotal to this stratagem is the capture by both Allied and Comintern forces of the Axis game-ender as "victory trophy".

Playing the divide between the ex-war-allies, and the restart of hostilities between the Allied and the Comintern.

By carefully splitting the scientific and military personnel as well as the hardware and facilities to be "captured" in order to equalize the probability of success by both antagonistic sides in the upcoming "game-ender space race".
By doing so, the Axis would be able to force the two superpowers to rush in crash space programs, thus leaving room for vulnerabilities: blind and total reliance on Axis specialists' technical expertise.

Once the game-ender Mod-3 is completed and placed into LEO by any of the two superpowers, taking the control by activating the hidden secret codes. Then turning the WMD against both the Allied and Comintern. First to be neutralised are the highest in hierarchy in the WMD program. Then in always broader circles, sweeping worldwide the scientific community, military leaders, political establishments, academic circles, prominent clericals, without sparing the most influential figures from the civilian society.

Finally, official announcement of the end of WW2, and claiming total victory for the Axis. New World Order superseding a century of Pax Britannica, with the 70th meridian east longitude fixed as Military Demarcation Line, between the spheres of interest of the Axis powers. Humankind entering the Age of Globalization.

183dp6bcsf4rpjpg.jpg

For illustration purpose only. The Earth as photographed from Space on Oct. 24, 1946.
https://timedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/183dp6bcsf4rpjpg.jpg?quality=75&strip=color&w=838


matrix.jpg

For illustration purpose only. "The Matrix" (Katakana:マトリックス)

1997

Qarre.png

Earliest Tongue in 1942

In April 1953 the first man-made V particles were reported at the Cosmotron.

In his conclusion at the conference in July 1953 held at Bagneres, near the Pic-du-Midi laboratory, Cecil Powell said, 'We have been invaded ... the accelerators are here.'

https://books.google.com/books?id=E...inberger Mcmillan 300 Mev synchrotron&f=false

2015

Trans-orbital lobotomy: Mass Lobotomy Project

on schizophrenic patients[targets]
...
upon discharge, the patients[targets] have a couple of weeks of indolence, some confusion, and forgetfulness, followed by a more protracted echo period of irritability, defiance and perhapse resurgence of complaints.
...
loss in intelligence, memory and other measureable abilities
...
the best results produced little more than inertia, inattentiveness, lack of initiative, blunted affect, docility,
...
In that tumultuous decade, rumors floated around that lobotomies were being considered to change political attitudes, quell student protests, and quiet racial conflicts.
The public also was getting a glimpse at the role of lobotomy-like procedures in a future technologically totalitarian society in novels such as The invisible Man (1952) and Limbo (1952), and in films such as A Clockwork Orange.


https://books.google.com/books?id=a...MAY#v=onepage&q=transorbital lobotomy&f=false

To capture the enemy's entire army is better than to destroy it; to take intact a regiment, a company, or a squad is better than to destroy them. For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the supreme of excellence. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the supreme excellence.
-Sun Tzu, Wu general, military strategist and philosopher, "The Art of War", 512 BC


To be continued...

S☫heil_Esy


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