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Default (partial failure!) Yamal-402, Proton-M/Briz-M, December 8, 2012
by Galactic Penguin SST 12-07-2012, 08:55 PM

To be honest, after making so many reports about it, I have never been in love with the Proton. The rocket is rather heavy for its performance, it uses toxic fuel, its launching location cuts off quite a bit of its potential performance (had it launch from Kourou it would probably do more than 8 tonnes to GTO, without using a hydrogen-based upper stage!), and it's a beast that's hard to tame - from Jan. 1969 to Feb. 1970 it sets the record of 9 launch failures in 11 launches (!), and even today it's reliability is only around 90%, not exactly at the top of the list. That's why I call it the Silver Hypergolic Monster(TM). However, I still admire it for quite a few reasons, one of which is its fast turnaround time - tonight will see its 4th launch in less than two months!

Today's passenger is the second satellite in less than five weeks that will join the fleet of Gazprom Space Systems, a Russian communication company formed by the Russian oil and natural gas giant. Unlike the recently launched Yamal-300K, Yamal-402 is built by Thales Alenia Space, and the launch was contracted with the American International Launch Services.

This will be the 8th commercial mission of the year for ILS and the 77th ILS Proton mission since the Proton April 1996 first commercial flight.

This is the 1st Gazprom Space Systems satellite launched with Proton and the 8th Thales Alenia Space-built satellite launched on Proton.











Launch location:

Baikonur Launch pad no. 200/39 46° 2'23.85"N, 63° 1'54.98"E



Launch dates and times:

Launch times
Time Zone
Baikonur / UTC+6
Moscow / UTC+4
Universal / UTC
Washington / EST
Los Angeles / PST
Launch time (Primary):
19:13:43
17:13:43
13:13:43
08:13:43
05:13:43
on:
Dec. 8, 2012
Dec. 8, 2012
Dec. 8, 2012
Dec. 8, 2012
Dec. 8, 2012
*Click here to restart the timer* Yamal-402 Launch

Live Coverage Of The Launch:

PAYLOAD

Yamal-402 communication satellite:



Mission Summary

In February 2009 Gazprom Space Systems ordered two Yamal-400 communication satellites from Thales Alenia Space. The satellites named Yamal 401 and Yamal 402 will be based on the Spacebus-4000C3 bus and are planned to be launched in 2011. According to the signed document Thales Alenia Space, as the prime contractor, will be responsible for design, manufacture, testing and turnkey delivery of Yamal-401 and Yamal-402 satellites as well as for the associated ground segment deployment. Originally planned to be launched on Ariane-5ECA vehicles, the satellites have now been transferred to Proton-M Briz-M rockets.

The Yamal-400 satellites will have guaranteed lifetime of 15 years. Yamal-402 will be placed at the 55 E orbital slot and will be equipped with 46 Ku-band transponders providing for the coverage zone over the most part of the territory of Russia, CIS, Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Summary
ParameterValue
Working Orbit:
GEO
Orbital Location:
55° East
Coverage:
Russia, Europe, southern Africa, south-east Asia
ApA at separation:
35696 km
PeA at separation:
7470 km
Inc at separation:
9.0°

Characteristics
Yamal-402
Customer:
  • Gazprom Space Systems
 
Prime contractor:
  • Thales Alenia Space
 
Platform:
  • Spacebus-4000C3
Mass at Separation:
  • 4460 kg
Dry Mass:
  • ?
Stabilization:
  • 3 axis stabilized
Dimensions (stowed):
  • ?
Batteries:
  • ?
Payload:
  • 46 Ku-band transponders
Life time:
  • 15 years
Ku-band coverage:

Launch Vehicle:

Characteristics
Proton-M / Briz-M
Prime contractor:
  • Khrunichev Space Centre
GRAU Index:
  • 8K82KM
Height:
58.2 m with upper stage and payload fairing
Diameter:
max 7.4 m
Liftoff mass:
705 metric tonnes
Payload mass:
~22 tonnes at LEO
1st stage:
  • 6 X RD-275 engines
  • Empty 30.6 tonnes
  • Propellants 419.41 tonnes (UDMH and NTO)
  • Thrust in vacuum 1069.8 tonnes of force
  • Thrust at sea level 971.4 tonnes of force
2nd stage:
  • 1 X RD-0211 engine 3 X RD-0210 engines
  • Empty 11.4 tonnes
  • Propellants 156.113 tonnes (UDMH and NTO)
  • Thrust in vacuum 237.4 tonnes of force
3rd stage:
  • 1 X RD-0213 engine & 1 X RD-0214 vernier engine
  • Empty 3.7 tonnes
  • Propellants 46.562 tonnes (UDMH and NTO)
  • Thrust in vacuum 59.36 (core) + 3.15 (vernier) tonnes of force
Upper Stage:
  • GRAU Index: 14S43
  • Common Name: Briz-M
  • Designer & Manufacturer: Khrunichev Space Centre
  • Dimensions: Length 2.654 m, Diameter 4 m
  • Empty Mass 2.2 tonnes
  • Propellants 6 660 kg UDMH + 13 260 kg N2O4
  • Flight time: no less than 24 hours
  • Main Engine: 1 X 14D30
  • Thrust in vacuum 2.0 tonnes of force
  • ISP 328.6 s
  • Main engine restarts: up to 8 times
  • Precision Manoeuvering Engines: 4 X 11D458
  • Thrust in vacuum 400 N each
  • ISP 252 s
  • RCS Engines: 12 X 17D58E
  • Thrust in vacuum 13.3 N each
  • ISP 274 s
Payload Fairing:
  • Diameter 4.35 m
  • Length 11.6 m

The vehicle's reliability statistics according to http://www.spacelaunchreport.com/log2012.html#rate:

Code:
================================================================ 
Vehicle     Successes/Tries Realzd Pred  Consc. Last     Dates    
                             Rate  Rate* Succes Fail    
================================================================
Proton-M/Briz-M  56    61    .92  .90      3    08/06/12 2001-

Yamal-402 Ascent Profile

The Proton-M first three stages place the orbital unit (OU), which consists of a Breeze-M upper stage, adapter system and Yamal-402, into a 51.5° inclination suborbital trajectory.

Proton-M powered flight lasts 582 seconds. The OU powered flight begins at the moment of the third stage separation.



Immediately after the separation of the third stage booster, the Breeze-M stability engines start, damping the angular velocities of the third stage separation and then providing orbital unit orientation and stability during coast flight along a suborbital trajectory to await the first burn. The upper stage follows a four-burn injection profile.







Yamal-402 Ascent Timeline

EventTime rel lift-offTime UTCComment
Ignition Start Sequence-00:00:02.513:13:40.5 
Stage 1 Ignition (40% thrust)-00:00:01.7513:13:41.25 
Command Stage 1 (100% thrust)-00:00:00.913:13:42.1 
Maximum Dynamic Pressure00:01:0213:14:45 
1st/2nd Stage Separation00:02:0013:15:43 
2nd/3rd Stage Separation00:05:2713:19:10 
Payload Fairing Separation00:05:4713:19:30 
3rd Stage/Breeze M Separation00:09:4213:23:25 
1st Burn Ignition00:11:1613:24:59 
1st Burn Shutdown00:15:5513:29:381st Burn's Duration 00:04:39
2nd Burn Ignition01:07:1514:20:58 
2nd Burn Shutdown01:25:2914:39:122nd Burn's Duration 00:18:14
3rd Burn Ignition03:29:4416:43:27 
3rd Burn Shutdown03:47:3417:01:173rd Burn's Duration 00:17:50
APT Jettison03:48:5517:02:38 
4th Burn Ignition08:54:0022:07:43 
4th Burn Shutdown09:02:4922:16:324th Burn's Duration 00:08:49
Spacecraft Separation09:15:0022:28:43 

Weather forecast for Baikonur, Kazakhstan on December 8, 2012 (7 p.m.)

Overcast in the evening, then partly cloudy. Fog overnight. Low of -1C. Winds from the WSW at 10 to 15 km/h.

TimeTempsDew PointRelative HumidityPrecipSnowCloud coverPressureWindWeather
8 PM4°C4°C100%0%0%100%1020 hPa14 km/h SW Fog

References
http://www.federalspace.ru
http://tvroscosmos.ru
http://www.khrunichev.ru
http://www.ilslaunch.com
http://tihiy.fromru.com/Rn/RN_Proton.htm
http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/yamal-402.htm
http://www.gazprom-spacesystems.ru/e...02/background/
http://www.tsenki.com
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com
http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru
http://www.spacelaunchreport.com
http://english.wunderground.com/cgi-...47,65.50000000

Last edited by Galactic Penguin SST; 12-09-2012 at 01:25 PM. Reason: The launch went off-target
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Old 12-07-2012, 10:22 PM   #2
orb
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Videos Rollout video

Rollout video from tvroscosmos:
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Old 12-08-2012, 10:24 AM   #3
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Photos Pre-launch photos















































http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=1
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Old 12-08-2012, 01:02 PM   #4
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Less than 15 minutes to go, and the ILS coverage has started....
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Old 12-08-2012, 01:25 PM   #5
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NASASpaceflght: ILS Proton-M launches with Yamal-402 satellite
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Old 12-08-2012, 01:26 PM   #6
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Now flying with the Briz-M.
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Old 12-08-2012, 01:42 PM   #7
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Briz-M first burn complete, three more to go....

And those guys at ILS were mistaken that the rocket disappeared into low cloud banks - it actually reappeared just as they cut to the animation! Thus most of you guys have missed Max-Q and stage separation etc..... at least this one does include the camera views....

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Old 12-09-2012, 03:34 AM   #8
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Launch failure:

ILS DECLARES A PROTON LAUNCH ANOMALY
BAIKONUR COSMODROME, Kazakhstan, December 8, 2012– Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) and International Launch Services (ILS) regret to announce an anomaly during the launch of the Yamal 402 satellite. The satellite had been built by Thales Alenia Space for Russian satellite operator, Gazprom Space Systems.

The Proton Breeze M rocket lifted off at 7:13 p.m. today local time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the Yamal 402 satellite. Preliminary flight information indicates that the 4th and final burn of the Breeze M engine ended about four minutes early and subsequently separated the spacecraft.
Thales Alenia Space is recalculating all the Launch Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) parameters in order to propose the possible recovery plans to Gazprom Space Systems.

A Russian State Commission will begin the process of determining the reasons for the anomaly. ILS will release details when data becomes available. In parallel with the State Commission, ILS will form its own Failure Review Oversight Board (FROB). The FROB will review the commission’s final report and corrective action plan, in accord with U.S. and Russian government export control regulations.

ILS will work diligently to identify the cause and implement corrective actions. Additional information will be provided as it becomes available.
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Old 12-09-2012, 06:37 AM   #9
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DaveS View Post
 Launch failure:

ILS DECLARES A PROTON LAUNCH ANOMALY
BAIKONUR COSMODROME, Kazakhstan, December 8, 2012– Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (Khrunichev) and International Launch Services (ILS) regret to announce an anomaly during the launch of the Yamal 402 satellite. The satellite had been built by Thales Alenia Space for Russian satellite operator, Gazprom Space Systems.

The Proton Breeze M rocket lifted off at 7:13 p.m. today local time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, carrying the Yamal 402 satellite. Preliminary flight information indicates that the 4th and final burn of the Breeze M engine ended about four minutes early and subsequently separated the spacecraft.
Thales Alenia Space is recalculating all the Launch Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) parameters in order to propose the possible recovery plans to Gazprom Space Systems.

A Russian State Commission will begin the process of determining the reasons for the anomaly. ILS will release details when data becomes available. In parallel with the State Commission, ILS will form its own Failure Review Oversight Board (FROB). The FROB will review the commission’s final report and corrective action plan, in accord with U.S. and Russian government export control regulations.

ILS will work diligently to identify the cause and implement corrective actions. Additional information will be provided as it becomes available.
Well do you want to hear about the good news or the bad news?

The good news is that the Briz-M shutdown was exactly 4 minutes early, and the stage detected something is wrong and separated the spacecraft immediately (see the live data here: http://www.space-center.ru/LiveEvents.aspx) Luckily the shortfall isn't very large (maybe ~1000 m/s of delta-v, making the final orbit ~3000 x 36000 x 25 deg.), so the spacecraft can definitely made up the short fall, perhaps even only eating up the margins if it's lucky.

The bad news? Six failures in 51 flights in less than 7 years (not including another one that never got a chance to fire), 7 failures if you also count the Briz-KM on the Rockot rocket, and you still think that "all iz well"? Frankly this is another reason that I don't like this rocket: with an upper stage that has a low thrust (~20000 Newtons) engine that needs pump to feed fuel and requires at least 4 to 5 restarts, has to withstand the harsh conditions of space for 10 hours and still able to control itself, and is so complex that it needs an extra outer fuel tank, it really isn't hard to imagine that its reliability won't be that great. I really think that a hydrogen upper stage might be the only answer to such a problem, but those Russian guys opted not to put it on the Proton and decided to wait for Angara (first flight still ~18 months away....). Oh well.......
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Old 12-09-2012, 01:06 PM   #10
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New orbit data is up:

2012-070A/39022: 3071 x 35672 km x 26.05°
2012-070C/39024: 3038 x 35680 km x 26.08°


This orbit is about 1620 m/s from GSO, so the satellite's fuel loss won't be very high (in the worse scenario, maybe costing 2-3 years worth of service life).

At least those guys at Roscosmos are still rather confident that they can hand over the satellite to GSS by January 8. The satellite will made its first burn overnight. (http://www.federalspace.ru/main.php?id=2&nid=19753)

Edit: this report said that the satellite will lose 4 years worth of fuel, shortening the predicted lifetime to about 11 years

Last edited by Galactic Penguin SST; 12-09-2012 at 01:26 PM.
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Old 12-09-2012, 11:12 PM   #11
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Russian satellite launch fails to reach proper orbit

BY JUSTIN RAY
SPACEFLIGHT NOW

Posted: December 8, 2012; Updated @ 10:55 p.m. with ILS statement




The Russian space industry suffered another malfunction Saturday when the upper stage of the heavy-lift Proton rocket failed to perform the full duration of its final boost-burn, leaving a domestic telecommunications satellite in a lower-than-planned orbit at the end of a 9-hour flight from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.


The Proton rocket was rolled out to the launch pad Wednesday. Credit: Roscosmos

Launch of the Yamal 402 spacecraft occurred at the precise moment of 1313:43 GMT (8:13:43 a.m. EST) atop the Proton M/Breeze M vehicle combination en route to geosynchronous transfer orbit.

The launch came just after sunset in temperatures just above the freezing mark, but the rocket rapidly disappeared into a low cloud deck within a few seconds of flight.

It was supposed to take 9 hours and 15 minutes to reach the ascent's completion, releasing the 9,839-pound satellite into an highly elliptical orbit expected to range from 4,642 miles at perigee to 22,181 miles at apogee and inclined 9 degrees to the equator.

Getting there began with the six main engines of the 191-foot-tall rocket blasting at liftoff to send the four-stage vehicle in the skies of Kazakhstan.
The lower three stages that comprised the Proton core vehicle sequentially fired through the initial 10 minutes of flight, leaving the Breeze M upper stage to step through four burns over the next several hours to achieve a preliminary parking orbit before heading into intermediate orbits to hit the geosynchronous transfer orbit.

Overseeing the mission was International Launch Services, the commercial marketer of Proton flights. ILS reported that the first three burns by the upper stage and jettison of the donut-shaped auxiliary fuel tank on the Breeze M had been performed, presumably putting the vehicle into a 317-mile by 22,147-mile orbit inclined 48 degrees to the equator within four hours of liftoff.

The rocket would then coast away from Earth for nearly five hours until the Breeze M would re-start its engine for a fourth and final burn of the day, raising the orbit's low point from 317 miles to 4,642 miles and bringing the inclination down from 48 degrees to 9 degrees relative to the equator where it ultimately would be stationed.

But instead of delivering nearly 9 minutes of propulsion as planned, the burn lasted four minutes short of that, leaving the satellite in the "off-nominal" orbit, according to a statement released by Proton rocket-builder Khrunichev.

International Launch Services said a Russian State Commission will be formed to investigate what went wrong and the ILS would set up its own Failure Review Oversight Board to review the commission's final report and corrective action plan.

"ILS will work diligently to identify the cause and implement corrective actions. Additional information will be provided as it becomes available," the firm said.

Yamal 402 was supposed to maneuver itself into a circular geosynchronous orbit 22,300 miles up and lowering inclination where it can match Earth's rotation and appear parked over the equator at 55 degrees East longitude to begin a 15-year service life.

Whether the spacecraft has enough fuel to overcome the rocket problem and still have a sufficient reserve for its 15-year mission life was not immediately known Saturday.


Yamal 402 atop its Breeze M upper stage in pre-launch preparations. Credit: Roscosmos

Built by Thales Alenia Space using the Spacebus 4000C3 platform, the satellite is equipped with a payload of 46 Ku-band transponders supporting four fixed transmission beams and one steerable beam.

Gazprom Space Systems of Moscow planned to operate Yamal 402 in expanding its orbital fleet, using the satellite to relay communications across Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States, Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

This was the 383rd Proton rocket launch since 1965 and the 77th by International Launch Services since 1996, the 8th just this year for ILS and 11th overall by the heavy-lift booster. It is the first time ILS has launched a satellite for Gazprom Space Systems and the eighth Thales Alenia Space-built craft to ride aboard the commercial Proton.

Yamal 402 was shipped from the Thales factory in Cannes on Nov. 4 to start the launch site campaign. The satellite underwent final testing testing, the loading of maneuvering fuel, mating to the upper stage and encapsulation within the Proton's two-piece nose cone to form the Space Head Unit.

That combined element was connected to the Proton core in horizontal fashion before rolling out to the launch pad by rail on Wednesday. The booster was erected vertically and shrouded by the pad's mobile service gantry for the final days of preparations.

Saturday's flight date has held steady throughout the launch campaign.
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Old 12-10-2012, 01:37 AM   #12
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The Briz-M strikes again.
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Old 12-10-2012, 07:25 AM   #13
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That's a rather nice looking rocket though.. Especially on the ground, make one hella rocket sled!
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Old 12-10-2012, 08:21 AM   #14
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You Tube Different camera views of the launch

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Old 12-10-2012, 04:31 PM   #15
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I have no idea what the Russians are thinking at this moment, but apparently there's a chance that the next Proton launch (an ILS flight with Satmex-8 originally scheduled on December 27) may go as planned! (http://ria.ru/science/20121209/914023802.html)

Meanwhile it was reported that the investigation is looking at a failure of the Briz-M main engine itself. (http://www.interfax.ru/society/txt.asp?id=280047) Interestingly it shares quite a bit of components with the main engine of the Fregat upper stage, yet it never suffered from a hardware failure (only a ground processing issue) since its first flight in 2000......
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