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Old 06-15-2012, 08:17 PM   #16
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Space News: NASA Plans $100 Million Contribution to ESA’s JUICE Mission:
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WASHINGTON — NASA plans to make a $100 million science contribution to the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) program, a large-scale science mission launching to the Jupiter system in 2022 to observe the gas giant and its moons.

U.S. science teams are free to propose as either principal investigators supplying instruments or instrument components, or as co-investigators on European science teams that provide their own instruments, said Jim Green, NASA’s director of NASA’s planetary science division. Proposed science, which will be formally solicited June 28, is limited to a $100 million lifecycle cost.

“The idea would be that we would solicit U.S. investigations,” Green said in a June 15 phone interview. “Those would be either principal investigations that may or may not have European partners, and U.S. participation on European instruments.”

NASA announced its intention to participate in JUICE June 15 in a presolicitation notice posted online. The U.S. space agency was expected to make some kind of contribution to the project, which was officially selected as ESA’s next large-scale science mission on May 2. ESA has capped its financial contribution to JUICE at 870 million euros.

Teams interested in submitting a proposal for the NASA contribution to JUICE must notify the agency of their intent by Aug. 2. Finished proposals are due Sept. 20, according to NASA’s June 15 notice.

NASA will award funding “some time in fiscal year 2013,” Green said. “Late in 2013 we’ll have funding available to start the contracts and start the process.”

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Old 02-21-2013, 12:53 PM   #17
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ESA:
ESA chooses instruments for its Jupiter icy moons explorer

21 February 2013

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer mission, JUICE, will carry a total of 11 scientific experiments to study the gas giant planet and its large ocean-bearing moons, ESA announced today.

JUICE is the first Large-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015–2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the biggest planet in the Solar System and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa.

These moons are thought to harbour vast water oceans beneath their icy surfaces and JUICE will map their surfaces, sound their interiors and assess their potential for hosting life in their oceans.

Today, ESA’s Science Programme Committee approved a complement of instruments that includes cameras and spectrometers, a laser altimeter and an ice-penetrating radar. The mission will also carry a magnetometer, plasma and particle monitors, and radio science hardware.

The instruments will be developed by scientific teams from 15 European countries, the US and Japan, through corresponding national funding.

“The selection of JUICE’s instruments is a key milestone in ESA’s flagship mission to the outer Solar System, which represents an unprecedented opportunity to showcase leading European technological and scientific expertise,” says Alvaro Giménez Cañete, ESA’s Director of Science and Robotic Exploration.

“The suite of instruments addresses all of the mission’s science goals, from in-situ measurements of Jupiter’s vast magnetic field and plasma environment, to remote observations of the surfaces and interiors of the three icy moons,” adds Luigi Colangeli, coordinator of ESA’s Solar System Missions.

Throughout its mission, JUICE will observe Jupiter’s atmosphere and magnetosphere, and the interaction of all four Galilean satellites – the three icy moons plus Io – with the gas giant planet.

The spacecraft will perform a dozen flybys of Callisto, the most heavily cratered object in the Solar System, and will fly past Europa twice in order to make the first measurements of the thickness of its icy crust.

JUICE will end up in orbit around Ganymede, where it will study the moon’s icy surface and internal structure, including its subsurface ocean.

The largest moon in the Solar System, Ganymede is the only one known to generate its own magnetic field, and JUICE will observe the unique magnetic and plasma interactions with Jupiter’s magnetosphere in detail.

“Jupiter and its icy moons constitute a kind of mini-Solar System in their own right, offering European scientists and our international partners the chance to learn more about the formation of potentially habitable worlds around other stars,” says Dmitrij Titov, ESA’s JUICE Study Scientist.

The selection of the instruments today helps to ensure that JUICE remains on schedule for launch in 2022.

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Old 02-21-2013, 01:39 PM   #18
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Ten years to launch, 8-10 years more till results are in.
An entire generation will change, many of the people working on it now won't be around any more.

Why so slow?
I understand the transit time, but why does it take a decade to make and launch this thing?
Same thing about the old proposed JIMO - 2004 start of design, 2017 expected launch.
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Old 02-21-2013, 01:45 PM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Artlav View Post
 Why so slow?
As sad as it is: No bucks, no Buck Rogers.

The ESA budget is too small for the number of projects that are pursued in parallel. But reducing the number of projects is politically impossible to achieve.

Thus, the money available every year for the JUICE project is essentially peanuts and can only be used for a small number of subprojects.

If you would reduce the number of projects and provide more funding for the necessary subprojects, you could develop one mission much faster. If all subprojects that can be started (all prerequisites satified) would be funded, you could develop such a mission in about 3 years. Even the car industry needs such timescales for their projects despite having the WAY bigger budget, because some tasks simply need their time.
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Old 02-21-2013, 06:25 PM   #20
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So, why can't some billionaire donate a billion or ten to NASA or ESA?
Or is the intersection of space flights enthusiasts and billionaires a null set so far?
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Old 02-21-2013, 06:42 PM   #21
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Originally Posted by Artlav View Post
 So, why can't some billionaire donate a billion or ten to NASA or ESA?
Or is the intersection of space flights enthusiasts and billionaires a null set so far?
Rather, such donations would violate the ESA contracts and damage the fragile peace. Currently, countries get their contracts based on what they paid for ESA. Let somebody donate money for ESA... and you will see blood.
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Old 02-22-2013, 10:05 AM   #22
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NASA JPL:
NASA and JPL Contribute to European Jupiter Mission

February 21, 2013

NASA has selected key contributions to a 2022 European Space Agency (ESA) mission that will study Jupiter and three of its largest moons in unprecedented detail. The moons are thought to harbor vast water oceans beneath their icy surfaces.

NASA's contribution will consist of one U.S.-led science instrument and hardware for two European instruments to fly on ESA's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission. Jeffrey Plaut of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., will be the U.S. lead for the Radar for Icy Moon Exploration experiment. The radar experiment's principal investigator is Lorenzo Bruzzone of Universita degli Studi di Trento in Italy.

Under the lead of Bruzzone and the Italian Space Agency, JPL will provide the transmitter and receiver hardware for a radar sounder designed to penetrate the icy crust of Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede and Callisto to a depth of about 5 miles (9 kilometers). This will allow scientists to see for the first time the underground structure of these tectonically complex and unique icy worlds.

JUICE will carry 11 experiments developed by scientific teams from 15 European countries, the United States and Japan.

The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter for three years and travel past Callisto and Europa multiple times, then orbit Ganymede, a moon larger than the planet Mercury. JUICE will conduct the first thorough exploration of Jupiter since NASA's Galileo mission from 1989-2003.

By studying the Jupiter system, JUICE will look to learn more about the formation and evolution of potentially habitable worlds in our solar system and beyond.

"NASA is thrilled to collaborate with ESA on this exciting mission to explore Jupiter and its icy moons," said John Grunsfeld, NASA's associate administrator for science in Washington. "Working together with ESA and our other international partners is key to enabling future scientific progress in our quest to understand the cosmos."

The solar-powered spacecraft will carry cameras and spectrometers, a laser altimeter and an ice-penetrating radar instrument. The mission also will carry a magnetometer, plasma and particle monitors, and radio science hardware. The spacecraft is scheduled to arrive at the Jupiter system in 2030.

"The selection of JUICE's instruments is a key milestone in ESA's flagship mission to the outer solar system, which represents an unprecedented opportunity to showcase leading European technological and scientific expertise," said Alvaro Gimenez Canete, ESA's director of science and robotic exploration.

NASA invited researchers in 2012 to submit proposals for NASA-provided instruments for the mission. Nine were reviewed, with one selected to fly. NASA agreed to provide critical hardware for two of the 10 selected European-led instruments. NASA's total contribution to the JUICE mission is $100 million for design, development and operation of the instruments through 2033.

In addition to the radar team and instrument, the NASA contributions are:

-- Ultraviolet Spectrometer: The principal investigator is Randy Gladstone of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. This spectrometer will acquire images to explore the surfaces and atmospheres of Jupiter's icy moons and how they interact with the Jupiter environment. The instrument also will determine how Jupiter's upper atmosphere interacts with its lower atmosphere below, and the ionosphere and magnetosphere above. The instrument will provide images of the aurora on Jupiter and Ganymede.

-- Particle Environment Package: The principal investigator is Stas Barabash of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. The U.S. lead is Pontus Brandt of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Md. Under the lead of Barabash and the Swedish National Space Board, APL will provide instruments to this suite to measure the neutral material and plasma that are accelerated and heated to extreme levels in Jupiter's fierce and complex magnetic environment.

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Old 02-22-2013, 07:13 PM   #23
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I fear that missions are put so far into the future with the hopes that something will go wrong in the meantime - thus canceling the project.

I also fear that missions have such huge timelines in order to allow for makework and paper pushing activities - with no real intention of flying. This is very evident with the so-called moon and mars initiatives we keep hearing about.
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Old 03-20-2013, 11:09 AM   #24
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More JUICE...

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Jupiter's icy moon Europa is a prime target for future space missions as it harbours a buried ocean that could have the right conditions for life.

But attempts to land may face a major hazard: jagged "blades" of ice up to 10m long.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21341176

Presented at:

http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/

N.
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Old 03-20-2013, 11:18 AM   #25
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... provided that the lander can close in the surface without being damaged by the intense radiation bombarding the space close to Jupiter. I think this is why Ganymede is the main target and not Europa.
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Old 03-20-2013, 12:29 PM   #26
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Jupiter's icy moon Europa is a prime target for future space missions as it harbours a buried ocean that could have the right conditions for life.

But attempts to land may face a major hazard:
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Old 10-07-2013, 01:36 PM   #27
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Phys.org: Terahertz sensor aiming for Jupiter's moons
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Old 02-15-2014, 10:36 AM   #28
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This is not about the spacecraft itself, but relevant to the mission.


Pretty.

JPL: "Largest Solar System Moon Detailed in Geologic Map"
The article isn't long, it explains the colors, and the discoveries are thoroughly interesting, so here's the whole thing:
Quote:
February 12, 2014

More than 400 years after its discovery by astronomer Galileo Galilei, the largest moon in the solar system - Jupiter's moon Ganymede - has finally claimed a spot on the map.

A group of scientists led by Geoffrey Collins of Wheaton College has produced the first global geologic map of Ganymede, Jupiter's seventh moon. The map combines the best images obtained during flybys conducted by NASA's Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft (1979) and Galileo orbiter (1995 to 2003) and is now published by the U. S. Geological Survey as a global map. It technically illustrates the varied geologic character of Ganymede's surface and is the first global, geologic map of this icy, outer-planet moon. The geologic map of Ganymede is available for download at: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/spaceimages/...hp?id=pia17902 ).

"This map illustrates the incredible variety of geological features on Ganymede and helps to make order from the apparent chaos of its complex surface," said Robert Pappalardo of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "This map is helping planetary scientists to decipher the evolution of this icy world and will aid in upcoming spacecraft observations."

The European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer mission is slated to be orbiting Ganymede around 2032. NASA is contributing a U.S.-led instrument and hardware for two European-led instruments for the mission.

Since its discovery in January 1610, Ganymede has been the focus of repeated observation, first by Earth-based telescopes, and later by the flyby missions and spacecraft orbiting Jupiter. These studies depict a complex, icy world whose surface is characterized by the striking contrast between its two major terrain types: the dark, very old, highly cratered regions, and the lighter, somewhat younger (but still very old) regions marked with an extensive array of grooves and ridges.

According to the scientists who have constructed this map, three major geologic periods have been identified for Ganymede that involve the dominance of impact cratering, then tectonic upheaval, followed by a decline in geologic activity. The map, which illustrates surface features, such as furrows, grooves and impact craters, allows scientists to decipher distinct geologic time periods for an object in the outer solar system for the first time.

"The highly detailed, colorful map confirmed a number of outstanding scientific hypotheses regarding Ganymede's geologic history, and also disproved others," said Baerbel Lucchitta, scientist emeritus at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Ariz., who has been involved with geologic mapping of Ganymede since 1980. "For example, the more detailed Galileo images showed that cryovolcanism, or the creation of volcanoes that erupt water and ice, is very rare on Ganymede."

The Ganymede global geologic map will enable researchers to compare the geologic characters of other icy satellite moons, because almost any type of feature that is found on other icy satellites has a similar feature somewhere on Ganymede.

"The surface of Ganymede is more than half as large as all the land area on Earth, so there is a wide diversity of locations to choose from," Collins said. "Ganymede also shows features that are ancient alongside much more recently formed features, adding historical diversity in addition to geographic diversity."

Amateur astronomers can observe Ganymede (with binoculars) in the evening sky this month, as Jupiter is in opposition and easily visible.

The project was funded by NASA through its Outer Planets Research and Planetary Geology and Geophysics Programs. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managed by the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
Another source fills in some gaps. Both stories are well written.
Los Angeles Times: "Ganymede mapped: See best map yet of our solar system's largest moon"
Quote:
...The dark material, rendered in browns and purples on the map above is covered with a thick layer of loose, dry, powder that could be several feet thick. The light material is brighter and newer, with less evidence of impacts. On the map above it is rendered in aqua. The yellows, reds and greens on the map represent big impact features.

"What's interesting about Ganymede is that if you stood in the right place, you could have one foot on something that is 3 billion years old, and the other on something that is 1 billion," said Wes Patterson of the John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. "There is that kind of abrupt change in the areas of the surface," added Patterson, who helped construct the map.

Scientists are still not sure why parts of Ganymede are so ancient, while others are relatively new.

"I wish we knew the answer," said Wheaton College's Geoffrey Collins, who began working on the map in 2000. "Making this map has been part of the research of trying to nail down the sequence of events on Ganymede. You can theorize all you want, but you need data to link a theory to."

[...]
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Old 02-15-2014, 02:43 PM   #29
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I guess the idea of a nuclear-electric propelled JIMO is past tense these days....sigh....and I agree with the long timeline. That allows for several years of make-work for engineers who will work on something that they know might never fly, a la the Constellation program and the Ares rocket family. It's a Fabian strategy space agencies follow in the hopes that they can get more funding in the future to actually finish the job. Would be nice if they can actually get the committment for one good risky mission now and then. NASA managed to get Curiosity at least.

I for one would like to see detailed study of Europa and Gannymede before I'm an old man. I really don't understand why Europa doesn't have a dozen orbiters already; it's got to be one of the most interesting bodies in the Solar system.

NASA should at least pay them enough to change the name. In fact, that may be a new fundung strategy for space agencies, come up with horrible names for things unless your government ponies up more cash. "Spirit"? "Opportunity"? "Curiosity"?

Really?

"Well, congressman, if you'd pay us more we'd come up with something less lame. Apollo had lots of cash and they got Eagle and Odyssey and Intrepid."
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Old 02-15-2014, 03:27 PM   #30
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If things go on like they do, we will soon have the "Coca-Cola Dark Monolith Jupiter Moon Mission".


Launched by a Boeing-SpaceX rocket from the "Apple Space Center".
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